CHAPTER III. INDUSTRY IN UKRAINE
TOPIC 7. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF UKRAINE
§ 11. National Economic and complex economic system
1. Remember to distinguish in the field of agriculture country.
2. In what area farms are your parents?
AGRICULTURE AND NATIONAL ECONOMIC SYSTEM. The work of man vstupaye in cooperation with nature, with other people, produces a variety of material and spiritual values. There is so sepa-Gover people, families, staff or to society and called the mastersupplemented activities, or economy. In historical development of the economy has passed two stages: theplay roles in farm and commodity economy.
As you are aware of history course, pri natural economy family or local community manufactured products necessary only for their own consumption, pleasure needs of self-IIR manufacturers. This stage of humanity was in its original and feudal society, but elements of subsistence agriculture and preserved so far, especially in domestic and subsistence farmers. Commodity economy there were then when production produced not only for their own consumption, but also for the needs of others. It was by sharing the results of work, sale of goods to markets.
With the development of commodity economy developed and territorial (geographic) division of labor, ie the production of certain goods zakriplyuvalosya for those areas, where such of existing best conditions - natural raw materials, labor, with relevant skills and more. Over time, held association (integration) works between individual territories. The result of this process was the distribution commodity markets, workforce and their unions in the state in national households.
In Ukraine, the development of commodity production started у ХVIII - XIX Art. Because of its territory for a long time continued-la in other states, the Industry was part of the national economies of these countries. Only on winning Ukraine non-dependence of its economy became national. On present stage it is the compositionNoah set many different industries, segments of industries, enterprises. Between them there are constant interactionsties and interaction, which is expressed reciprocal flow of fuel, power, raw materials, finished products, service information. Further-we said, the national economy is National Gospodarska complex with close internal communication as well as developed external links with national latSIDS countries.
CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS ECONOMIC COMPLEX OF UKRAINE. National economic complex of Ukraine during ostannoFirst Decade XX Art. was in a lingering economic crisis. The reasons for this is that he appeared as a "piece" single National Economy complex of the former Soviet Union formed their time not on the market, and socialist economic relastates. Many plants that are on Ukraine, have incomplete cycle, and links to companies that Ukraine were out-yinoyu are links and a single production process, often broken and lost-tioned (besides restoring them is not always rational). For example, forced idle large textile mills that had been raw material (cotton) from Central Asia; discontinued operation of many machine which produce parts and assemblies plants for Russia spent heavily on acquisition from Russia of nuclear Fuel Ukrainian nuclear power etc.
Economy of Ukraine mostly developed extensive prob-Hom. ie increasing output achieved by account the quantitative growth of production base rather than qualitative її re-equipment. For example, to double its output products in same time increased the number of machines, machine tools, equipment, roing force, raw materials, increased cultivation area twice, livestock, etc.. This way time brought positive results. But due to limited resources it has become hopeless. Therefore, combined with extensive development intense development, based on the introduction of advanced scientific and technicalfoot of progress in production, application of new technologies, increasegovernmental education and qualification, improvement of manufacturing and others. Intensive path leads to decrease energy, mate-Rial labor and production at simultaneous growth in its volumes and improving product quality. Volumes production increases due to increased productivity. This intensification production contributed to the rapid development economy of developed countries in XX Art. Now this way was the determining for development of Ukraine.
ECONOMIC SYSTEM OF UKRAINE. Economic system - A method bodytion of economic life. Its youdefines primarily in property relations society and the economic mechanism. The main types of economic system у XX Art. were a market economy and centrally planned economy.
Centralized planned economy marked a total dominationvannyam state or "collective" property, a crucial role State in addressing economic issues carried out by district planning and administrative allocation of resources. It command economy. Government interference in all economic processes and all levels absence acquisitive initiatives led to low efficiency of management, underminingmanufactured products in international markets, a permanent deficit of conzhyvchyh goods. centralsects planned economy had fifteen of the socialist countries, including formerIt USSR.
Market economy based on private property, free under-entrepreneurship and the market economic mechanism. Market provides for exchange of manufactured goods according to their value, existence competition between manufacturers, balancing supply and demand ismanufactured goods. He is also the regulator economic activity. Market economy had a majority of the world.
In the 90's XX Art. appeared on the world map post-socialist countries (in translation from Latin "post" means "after") with transition (from centrally planned to market) type economic system. This type of economic system now has, and Ukraine. Economy in transition implies radical transformation in all spheres of economic activity across the commercial sector post-socialist countries. Reforming the economy is concerned primarily with rozderzhavventilation and and privatization of enterprises, bodies'organizations, schools, the advent of effective owner, small and medium enterprises, restrictions on direct state intervention in economic processes, while skilful management of these processeswe-side state.
Ukraine belongs to countries where economic reforms carriedions slowly and inconsistently. This is different reasons. In particular, industry is many large and old enterprises with backward technology and processes equipment that does not attract neither domestic nor foreign ownershipWorker. Economy Ukraine requires large investments, which in the country and receiving their due border hindered nedoskonalym law and social instability development. Modern Ukraine's economic system combines old and new items, not all of which are progressive. Often among They are appearing that are inherent in less developed market economymikam ("shadow" economy, "black" market, Bribery and corruption officials, which depends on economic reforms replacement of commodity-money relations in barter - the exchange of naturalclearance, etc.).
Despite the fact that over the last decade the share of state property in the economy declined sharply, and increased share various forms of private property (Private, joint stock companies, etc. to 60%), production is not observed high efficiency-ity. Often, denationalization and privatization of wireslys is transparently and not in favor of an efficient owner. In some impor-heartfelt areas Economy real change property relations has served notXia. Thus, agriculture instead of former collective and state farms (collective and state farms) have shared CElyanski enterprise, but the villagers they were not beneficial owners of the land. Agricultural reform aimed at introducing private ownershipformalities of land and turning it into a commodity, began in 2000 р. Phase transition economy in Ukraine will rather long, but already in 2006 Ukraine was granted the status of a market economy.
Types of businesses. Primary components sector є enterpriseorganizations, institutions, institutions that produce differentlymanitnu products or provide various services. These include mines, quarries, mines, factories, plants, power plants, farms, railway stations, MOTOR enter-involvement of ministries and construction companies, repair shops, stores, Barbers, schools, universities, research institutes, hospitals, Banks and others. They may consist of internal divisions - workshops, production areas and departments etc.. Have very complicated structure Enterprise-plantsIn which there are shops for different purpose: OSforms of Internet usage, utility, service, utility. To issue a kind of enterprise and organization can form productionnychi or scientific and production associations, unions, cooperatives.
By ownership, businesses and organizations are: state (Their owners is the government) utilities (Locally-owned territorial communities - regional, district, city, town and village) private (Owners - individuals or families, who volunteer their own work or use paid) collectivestructive (Property business associations, cooperatives, corporations; Among the most common stock companies, owners shares of which act as their workers, and a wide range of other people), as well as with mixed property (Created with the joint participation of stateowes and other owners). Except this, in Ukraine appearsyutsya businesses and organizations based foreign capital and are property of international organizations and legal those of other states.
MAIN FORMS OF SOCIAL ORGANIZATION PRODUCTION. For a long time in Industry isolated such forms of social organization, productionproduction, as concentration, specialization, cooperation and combination production. Now were added diversification and the batching.
Concentration - This concentration is higher output on separate enterprises in some centers. It can be or extensive intensive way. If the increase in production on a separate company is due to expansiontion, it is - extensive concentration, and if production increases as a result of highly technological equipment, we have to deal with intense or high-quality, concentration. Concentration allows to mechanize or automate manufacture, transfer its new technology to help increase
productivity. But in modern conditions effective can be small and medium enterprises - are easier refocus on the issue competitive products, so now is the appropriate dekontsentra-tion production the mini-enterprises.
Specialization - Issue of a certain type of business aboutsales, leading to improved product quality, increase productivityefficiency of labor, lowering production costs. There are substantive (Production of certain ready products on individual firms), For detailed (Manufacture of some components, detaLei units) і postadiynu (Consistent production of semifinished products, parts or components in various companies, each of which performs a stage of processing) of specialization.
Cooperations - Establishment of industrial linkages between spetsializovanymy companies that are working together to manufactureVOM complex products. It has gained distribution in mechanical engineering. For example, production vehicle or aircraft necessary details that produce several hundred specialized enterprises. They provide these wherepulleys on the assembly enterprise that produces finished products.
Combining - A combination of one enterprise of all stages processing of certain raw materials, providing little- or bezvidhidnist production. Most common plants in metallurgy, textile, wood and oil industry.
Diversification of production - The process of quantitative and qualitative hisfoot diversification. Typical for large enterprises, which arefree to respond to changing demand. Then, in parallel with the release of basestion products expands production another that uses onspecific. An example of such enterprise is "YuzhmashIn Dnipropetrovskrespiratory exercisesIn which parallel with the production of rockets establishment of anWoman Issue wheel tractors, trolleys, household appliances and others.
Of integrated production is to establish effective industrial relations between different companies in different industries. These enterprises can consistently process raw materials, mutually postschats materials and finished products, producers shareChu infrastructure (warehouses, systems water, Gas-, DH transport routes). As a result of this form of societytion of industrial complexes are formed.
Forms social organization of industry determine size companies relationships between them, their placement. They changeARE in the process economic development. Yes, the socialist system, the most were widespread concentration, specialization and cooperation of production. However, too large industrial enterprises malomanevreni, can not quickly respond to changing demand can not be quickly refocused on the issue of competitivenessable products. Therefore, during economic transition characterized where concentration, diversification and the batching of production.
Economy - it activities undertaken by individuals, collective or society in during which a person enters the interaction with nature, with other people and produces a variety of material and spiritual values.
National Commercial Complex - a complex set of large number of different sectors, industries and business segments, between that there are constant relationships and interactions.
Ukraine has a transition from centrally planned to market-type economic system.
For forms Ownership and organization of the type of government, public, private, collective and mixed ownership.
Forms of social organization of production concentration, specialization, of cooperation, combining, diversification and the batching of production.
Questions and Tasks
1. What is the national economy, national economic complex?
2. Name the types of economic systems. Describe the economic system Ukraine.
3. What distinguish the types of companies by ownership?
4. List the forms of social organization of industrial production.