§ 11. National Economic and complex economic system of Ukraine
INDUSTRY IN UKRAINE
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF UKRAINE
National Economic and complex economic system
1. Remember to distinguish in the field of agriculture
2. In what area farms are your parents?
AND NATIONAL ECONOMIC SYSTEM. The work of man vstupaye in cooperation with
nature, with other people, produces a variety of material and spiritual values.
There is so sepa-Gover people, families, staff or to society and
called the mastersupplemented activities, or economy. In historical
development of the economy has passed two stages: theplay roles in farm and commodity
As you are aware of
history course, pri natural economy family or local community
manufactured products necessary only for their own consumption, pleasure
needs of self-IIR
manufacturers. This stage of humanity was in its original and feudal society,
but elements of subsistence agriculture and preserved so far, especially in
domestic and subsistence farmers. Commodity economy there were then when production
produced not only for their own consumption, but also for the needs of others. It
was by sharing the results of work, sale of goods to markets.
With the development of commodity economy developed and territorial (geographic) division of labor,
ie the production of certain goods zakriplyuvalosya for those areas, where such
of existing best conditions - natural raw materials, labor, with
relevant skills and more. Over time, held association (integration) works between individual
territories. The result of this process was the distribution commodity markets,
workforce and their unions in the state in national
In Ukraine, the development of commodity production started у ХVIII
- XIX Art. Because of its territory for a long time
in other states, the Industry
was part of the national economies of these countries. Only on winning
Ukraine non-dependence of its economy became national. On present stage it is the compositionNoah set
many different industries, segments of industries,
enterprises. Between them there are constant interactionsties and interaction, which is expressed
reciprocal flow of fuel, power, raw materials, finished products,
service information. Further-we said, the national economy is National
complex with close internal communication as well as developed
external links with national latSIDS countries.
ECONOMIC COMPLEX OF UKRAINE. National economic complex of Ukraine
during ostannoFirst Decade XX Art. was in
a lingering economic crisis. The reasons for this is that he appeared as a "piece"
single National Economy
complex of the former Soviet Union formed their time not on the market, and
socialist economic relastates. Many plants that are on
Ukraine, have incomplete cycle, and links to companies that
Ukraine were out-yinoyu are links and a single production process, often
broken and lost-tioned (besides restoring them is not always rational). For example, forced idle
large textile mills that had been raw material (cotton) from Central Asia;
discontinued operation of many machine which produce parts and assemblies
plants for Russia spent heavily on acquisition from Russia of nuclear Fuel
Ukrainian nuclear power etc.
Economy of Ukraine
mostly developed extensive prob-Hom. ie increasing
output achieved by account the quantitative growth of production
base rather than qualitative її re-equipment. For example, to double its output
products in same time increased the number of machines, machine tools, equipment,
force, raw materials, increased cultivation area twice, livestock, etc.. This way
time brought positive results. But due to limited resources it
has become hopeless. Therefore, combined with extensive development intense
development, based on the introduction of advanced
scientific and technicalfoot of progress in production, application of new technologies, increasegovernmental education and
qualification, improvement of manufacturing and others. Intensive path leads
to decrease energy, mate-Rial labor and production at
simultaneous growth in its volumes and improving product quality. Volumes
production increases due to increased productivity. This intensification
production contributed to the rapid development economy of developed countries in XX Art. Now this way was the determining
for development of Ukraine.
SYSTEM OF UKRAINE. Economic system - A method bodytion of economic life. Its
youdefines primarily in property relations
society and the economic mechanism. The main
types of economic system у XX Art. were a market economy and centrally planned economy.
planned economy marked a total dominationvannyam state or "collective"
property, a crucial role State
in addressing economic issues carried out by district
planning and administrative allocation of resources. It command economy. Government interference in all economic processes and
all levels absence
acquisitive initiatives led to low efficiency of management, underminingmanufactured products in international markets, a permanent deficit of conzhyvchyh goods. centralsects planned
economy had fifteen of the socialist countries, including
Market economy based on private property, free
and the market economic mechanism. Market provides for exchange of manufactured
goods according to their value, existence competition between manufacturers,
balancing supply and demand ismanufactured goods. He is also the regulator
economic activity. Market economy had a majority of the world.
In the 90's XX Art. appeared on the world map post-socialist countries (in translation from
Latin "post" means "after") with transition (from
centrally planned to market) type economic system.
This type of economic system now has, and Ukraine. Economy in transition implies radical
transformation in all spheres of economic activity across the commercial sector
post-socialist countries. Reforming the economy is concerned primarily with
and privatization of enterprises, bodies'organizations, schools, the advent of effective
owner, small and medium enterprises, restrictions on direct
state intervention in economic processes, while skilful management of these processeswe-side
Ukraine belongs to countries where economic reforms carriedions slowly
and inconsistently. This is different reasons. In particular, industry is
many large and old enterprises with backward technology and processes
equipment that does not attract neither domestic nor foreign ownershipWorker. Economy
Ukraine requires large investments, which in the country and receiving their due
border hindered nedoskonalym law and social instability
Ukraine's economic system combines old and new items, not all of which are
progressive. Often among They are appearing that are inherent in less developed
market economymikam ("shadow" economy, "black" market,
Bribery and corruption officials, which depends on economic reforms
replacement of commodity-money relations in barter - the exchange of naturalclearance, etc.).
Despite the fact that over the last decade the share of state property
in the economy declined sharply, and increased share various forms of private property
(Private, joint stock companies, etc. to 60%), production is not observed
high efficiency-ity. Often, denationalization and privatization of wireslys is transparently
and not in favor of an efficient owner. In some impor-heartfelt areas
Economy real change property relations has served notXia. Thus,
agriculture instead of former
collective and state farms (collective and state farms) have shared CElyanski
enterprise, but the villagers they were not beneficial owners of the land. Agricultural
reform aimed at introducing private ownershipformalities of land and turning it into a commodity,
began in 2000 р.
Phase transition economy in Ukraine will
rather long, but already in 2006 Ukraine was granted the status of a market economy.
Types of businesses. Primary
components sector є enterpriseorganizations, institutions, institutions that produce differentlymanitnu products
or provide various services. These include mines, quarries, mines, factories,
plants, power plants, farms, railway stations,
MOTOR enter-involvement of ministries and construction companies, repair shops, stores,
Barbers, schools, universities, research institutes, hospitals, Banks and others. They
may consist of internal divisions - workshops, production areas and departments
etc.. Have very complicated structure Enterprise-plantsIn which there are shops for different purpose: OSforms of Internet usage, utility, service, utility. To issue a kind of enterprise and organization can
form productionnychi or
scientific and production associations, unions, cooperatives.
By ownership, businesses and organizations are: state
owners is the government) utilities (Locally-owned
territorial communities - regional, district, city, town and village)
private (Owners - individuals or families, who volunteer their own
work or use paid) collectivestructive (Property
business associations, cooperatives, corporations; Among the most
common stock companies, owners shares of which act as their workers, and a wide range of other people), as well as with mixed property
(Created with the joint participation of stateowes and other owners). Except
this, in Ukraine appearsyutsya
businesses and organizations based foreign capital and are property of international organizations and legal
those of other states.
MAIN FORMS OF SOCIAL ORGANIZATION
PRODUCTION. For a long time in
Industry isolated such forms of social organization, productionproduction, as
concentration, specialization, cooperation and combination production. Now
were added diversification and the batching.
Concentration - This concentration is higher output on separate
enterprises in some centers. It can be or extensive
intensive way. If the increase in production on a separate company
is due to expansiontion, it is - extensive concentration, and if
production increases as a result of highly
technological equipment, we have to deal with intense or high-quality, concentration.
Concentration allows to mechanize or automate manufacture, transfer
its new technology to help increase
But in modern conditions effective can be small and medium enterprises - are easier
refocus on the issue competitive products, so now is the appropriate dekontsentra-tion production
Specialization - Issue of a certain type of business
leading to improved product quality, increase productivityefficiency of labor,
lowering production costs. There are substantive (Production of certain
on individual firms), For detailed (Manufacture of some components, detaLei units) і postadiynu (Consistent
production of semifinished products, parts or components in various companies, each
of which performs
a stage of processing) of specialization.
Cooperations - Establishment of industrial linkages between spetsializovanymy
companies that are working together to manufactureVOM complex
products. It has gained distribution in mechanical engineering. For example, production
vehicle or aircraft necessary details that produce several hundred
specialized enterprises. They provide these wherepulleys on the assembly
enterprise that produces finished products.
Combining - A combination of one enterprise of all stages processing of certain raw materials,
providing little- or bezvidhidnist production. Most
common plants in metallurgy, textile, wood and oil
Diversification of production - The process of quantitative and qualitative hisfoot
diversification. Typical for large enterprises, which arefree to respond to
changing demand. Then, in parallel with the release of basestion products expands production
another that uses onspecific. An example of such enterprise is "YuzhmashIn Dnipropetrovskrespiratory exercisesIn which parallel
with the production of rockets establishment of anWoman Issue wheel tractors, trolleys,
household appliances and others.
Of integrated production is to establish effective industrial relations
between different companies in different industries. These enterprises can consistently
process raw materials, mutually postschats materials and finished products,
producers shareChu infrastructure (warehouses, systems water, Gas-, DH
transport routes). As a result of this form of societytion of
industrial complexes are formed.
social organization of industry determine size companies
relationships between them, their placement. They changeARE in the process
economic development. Yes, the socialist system, the most
were widespread concentration, specialization and cooperation of production. However,
too large industrial enterprises malomanevreni,
can not quickly respond to changing demand can not be quickly refocused
on the issue of competitivenessable products. Therefore, during economic transition
characterized where concentration, diversification and the batching of production.
Economy - it
activities undertaken by individuals, collective or society in
during which a person enters the interaction with nature, with other people and
produces a variety of material and spiritual values.
National Commercial Complex - a complex set of large
number of different sectors, industries and business segments, between
that there are constant relationships and interactions.
Ukraine has a transition
from centrally planned to market-type economic system.
Ownership and organization of the type of government, public, private,
collective and mixed ownership.
Forms of social organization of production concentration, specialization,
of cooperation, combining, diversification and the batching of production.
Questions and Tasks
1. What is the national economy, national economic complex?
2. Name the types of economic systems. Describe the economic system Ukraine.
3. What distinguish the types of companies by ownership?
4. List the forms of social organization of industrial production.
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