§ 10. Manpower and Employment (textbook)

THEME 6. Labor and employment

 

§ 10. Manpower and Employment

 

LABOR RESOURCES. The population has two important functions: on the one hand, it is manufacturer of material goods and services, the creator of the national public product, etc.ment - their consumers. Most active part of it is labor Resources - working age population (Men aged 16 - 59 years, women - 16 - 54 years inclusive), except Disabled and people of retirement age and teenagers who work. In Ukraine workforce of nearly 30 million people, in their structure is dominated by hard-working people - 58% (For 2005 р.).

Economically active population called working-age population which provides for a certain period supply of labor for production goods and services. This includes people engaged in economic activity that generates revenue (including retirementnery) and the unemployed who want to work. To This category includes people aged 15 -70 years. Economically inactive populationpeople who are on maintained by the State or individuals. It includes persons withadopted on in household or studying, unemployed, not asylumappearing unwilling to work and employment, and and retirees who do not work. Economically active population in Ukraine is 22 million people (For 2005 ), and the economically inactive - 13 million people. A significant share among the latter group are students who eventually pass the group of economically active population.

Employment. Employment rate population in Ukraine permanently reduced (in terms of economic crisis in 2000 he was 62%). Has changed as the structure of Employtoast: if in 1990 entire population was employed in public econtors, in 2005 by - over 3 million people - in other areas especially in market infrastructure. Unequal rate of layoffs in different sectors of the economy affected the structure employment. Share rightcontinued Ms areas material production decreased from 60% in 1990 till 50,7% in 2004 was the last decade increase in workers was only in management.

The relationship between supply and demand for labor forms labor market. Now it demand is much smaller than onposition which increases the number of unemployed people. Unemployed in Ukraine believe able-bodied people who do not have earnings recorded in the civil service employment as job seekers, willing and able to start it. They is 8,6% of able-bodied population. Most of them - a woman.

 

Fig. Employment. Unemployment

 

Table. Employment in areas of Ukraine

 

 

1990

2000

2005

Industries

million people

%

million people

%

million people

%

Total occupied:

25,4

100,0

21,6

100,0

20,3

100,0

Industry

7,8

30,8

4,3

19,9

4,0

19,7

Agriculture and Forestry

5,0

19,8

4,7

21,8

4,0

19,7

Construction

2,4

9,4

0,9

4,2

0,9

4,4

Transport  and communications

1,8

7,2

1,2

5,6

1,4

6,9

Trade,   catering

sales, purchases

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,9

7,3

1,5

6,9

1,4

6,9

Health,   Physical education, sport

and social   software

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,5

5,9

1,4

6,5

1,3

6,8

Education, Culture,   science,

3,0

11,9

2,2

10,2

2,0

9,5

Financing   Lending

 

 

 

 

 

 

and insurance

0,1

0,4

0,2

0,9

0,2

1,0

The device controls

0,4

0,2

0,8

3,7

1,1

5,4

Other sectors and areas

 

 

 

 

 

 

economic   activity

1,5

7,1

4,4

20,3

4,0

19,7

LABOR GEOGRAPHY RESOURCES. By providing with human resources all regions of Ukraine - overresidue. Most burden on staff vacancies in regions where market reforms occurring slowly: it - western and northern regions of Ukraine.

Imbalance between supply and demand for labor cause its significant outflow from Ukraine. Under adverse demohrafichnoyi situation is phenomenon in the future could lead to shortages labor force in many regions. Therefore necessary a series of Zakhovirgins to improve employment of labor resources in Ukraine.

 

Remember

Human Resourcesthe population of working age (Men aged 16 - 59 years, women - 16 - 54 years inclusive, except Disabled), and people of retirement age and teenagers who work.

Economically active population - is working well people aged 15 - 70 years (Including retirementnery and the unemployed who want to work) that engaged in economic activities that makes a profit.

Unemployed believe able-bodied people who do not have earnings recorded in the civil service employment as job seekers, willing and able to start it.

 

Questions and Tasks

1. What is human resources and economically active population?

2. What changes in the employment of labor in recent years?

3. What is the labor market? What caused the growth rate in Ukraine?

4. What measures do you believe can improve working population in our state and reduce the outflow to work abroad?