§ 9. Agricultural settlement (textbook)

§ 9. Agricultural settlement

 

1.     Remember that distinguish the types of settlements.

2.     What type of settlement is that where you live?

 

RURAL. Rural residents make up almost a third of Ukraine's population - 15.5 million people (2004). They live in villages that є the most common human settlements Ukraine (almost 29 thousand). Village- A town in which people are rural lifestyles and engaged mainly agriculture.

But the second half of the twentieth Art. Ukraine continues to reduce the number of rural Inhabitants of rural settlements (Table 3). Yes, the last 40 years Ukraine's rural population decreased more than 6 million people. The main reasons for this phenomenon is migration from villages to towns and natural reduction population. The most intense reduction in the number of rural population continues in the north-eastern regions.

 

Table. Change the number of rural population

and rural settlements

 

 

1970

1979

1989

2003

Number of rural population, million people

21.4

19.3

17.1

15.5

The share of rural population,%

45

39

33

32.5

Number of villages, thousands of vehicles.

31.3

29.7

-

28.7

 

 

 

 

 

Changes accordingly and number of villages. In recent years, with the administrative map disappeared almost 3 thousand villages. The reasons for this phenomenon is not only migration outflow of rural residents in cities and large cities and absorb rural The expansion of settlements limits their villages and move to the category of settlements urban.

TYPES OF RURAL Settlements. According to distinguish populations village small (500 inhabitants) average (500 – 1000), large (Over 1000 inhabitants). According to the census over 57% of villages in Ukraine small fifth of them - is hamlets (With populations less than 100 inhabitants). Natural phenomenon is Link villages from one group to another. Typically, villages lose population and the gradual transition from larger populations for groups with less.

Production operations distinguish between rural farm (agricultural) and non-agricultural mixed. Type of settlement is determined by the structure of employment. Dominant type in Ukraine agricultural villages. Tonon-agricultural villages include settlement of industrial companies forests and fishing, transport, cottages, recreational settlement. Their little in Ukraine. In mixed villagescombined agricultural and industrial economic activities. In them near farms are small industrial objects. Typically, this sugar, alcohol, starch, flaxand wood-working company. In these villages created the best conditions for providing employment, overcoming seasonality of labor resources, creating appropriate conditions for the social needs of rural population (children's education, medical services, etc.).

ACCOMMODATION FEATURES villages. Mali dominated villages in the northern, northeastern and western parts of Ukraine (In Chernihiv, Poltava, Sumy and Kharkiv region). In the rest of common medium and large villages. In large rural living Most rural Ukraine's population.

Spatial features Rural settlement figure also shows the density of rural settlements. The highest density of rural settlements (over 6 villages for 100 km2) formed in the western (Lviv, Ternopil and Brussels) and north-eastern  (Poltava, Sumy) Regions of Ukraine. Low density seen in the villages Kherson, Nicholas and Luhansk regions.

In population, location and features of buildings largely influenced villages natural conditions and resources: terrain, river laying underground Water allocation farmland and forest covered areas. Therefore cILSKAYA settlement Ukraine significantly differ in shape and planning topographic situation on the ground. These differences were formed by natural conditions and historical features of their development. Among the forms of planning the most widely linear (single row or double-row), radial-ring and U-shape. Fewer villages have quarterly or narrow construction.

 Topographical location of rural settlements has some geographical patterns. In northern Ukraine, where a significant proportion land occupied by forests and swamps, villages are located on watersheds in the forest and the desert - near rivers and in ravines (in places where close to the surface lie groundwater). In mountainous areas of the village may extend narrow strips along river valleys in 5 - 7 km. Bowery consist of scattered at large plane-dents dwellings. In modern conditions of farm Hutori can be restored and become the centers of such households.

SOCIAL PROBLEMS OF RURAL POPULATION. In modern times Rural developed very severe socio-demographic situation. The biggest problems are rural depopulation, reduction of settlement network, degradation of agricultural land unemployment, low incomes, the decline of social services.  However, the Village Settlement Network still ranks very high on the resettlement and territorial of agriculture.

To prevent degradation rural locations to develop and implement public policies aimed at the preservation and promotion of socio-economic development rural settlements. Perform a series of laws and government programs to stimulate rural economic development is hampered by lack of finance.

 

Remember

Village - a settlement point where people are rural lifestyles and are engaged mainly in rural economy.

Villages populations are distinguished by (small medium, large), withand productive activities (agricultural, non-agricultural, mixed).

The highest density of rural settlements formed in western and north-eastern regions of Ukraine, the lowest - in Kherson, Nicholas and Luhansk regions.

The biggest problems in rural areas is depopulation, the reduction of settlement network degradation agricultural land, unemployment, low incomes, the decline social sphere. 

 

Questions and Tasks

1. What population centers are attributed to the villages?

2. How to distinguish the village for populations?

3. What are the types of rural settlements in industrial activity?

4. Show on map regions with the highest density of rural population. What factors affect the resettlement in rural areas?

5. As environmental conditions affect the features of building settlements? Point examples.