§ 8. Urban settlement (textbook)

TOPIC 5. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT settlements and villages

 

§ 8. City resettlement

 

1.     Recall from the previous geography course, which inhabited items relating to urban settlements, and which - to the village.

2.     In which cities you had to visit Ukraine?

3.     What type of settlements is one in which do you live?

 

Population living in different populations, appearance and type of settlements. Populated point (Village) - a place of residence and business people. There two types of settlements - urban and rural.

 

Fig. Softeningischennya population

 

TYPES CITIES in size. City settlements - it is cities and towns. City considered town, whose inhabitants are mostly occupied in non-farm areas. In Ukraine cities include settlements that are over 10 thousand people as well as smaller populations in settlements have historically been a city.

In our country consist of 457 cities. Most of them are in the eastern regions of Ukraine, the least - in southern and northern. The greatest concentration of cities - in Lviv, Kharkiv, Lugansk, Donetsk region.

By populations City divided into small (50 thousand inhabitants) average(50 - 100 thousand) large (100 - 500 thousand) a very large(500 - 1000 K), major cities (More than 1 million inhabitants). Most small towns in Ukraine: they make up over 74% of all their quantity. This group covers a very different city than population, and level socio-economic development, appearance, features that they perform.

In the nine largest cities in Ukraine  live more than a third of the urban population. This major cities (Kyiv, Kharkiv, Donetsk, Dnipropetrovsk, Odessa) And very large cities (Lviv, Zaporozhye, Krivoy Rog).

 

Records Ukraine

The largest number population among the cities of Ukraine are Kyiv (2,7 million), the smallest - the city Ugne Lviv oblast (1,2 thousand).

 

 

TYPES MOST TIME APPEARANCE. By time of distinguish among the cities of old, middle-aged and young people.

До old bridge are first cities in Ukraine, which have more than 2,5 thousand years ago. It was a settlement based ancient Greeks. Their remains are found near the modern city Odesa (Tyra), Ochakov (Olbia) Sevastopol(Chersonese) and Kerch (Panticapaeum) Feodosia. In the old city, founded during the Kievan Rus, include Kyiv, Chernihiv, Galich, Terebovlya, Lviv, Zbarazh, Novgorod-Seversky, Pereyaslav, Chernobyl, Vladimir-Volyn, Luck et al. They were centers of handicrafts, trade, education and culture, as well as defensive fortifications. Many cities have emerged in XVXVII Art.: Simferopol, Tulchin, Berestechko, Nikopol, Rachel, Korostyshev, Ternopil, Ismail, Ochakov, Kremenchug, Kharkivet al. These cities were regis-struction centers, which arose mainly on the crossroads.

З рozvytkom Industry у XVIIIXIX Art. emerged and began to develop actively in Ehundred mostly in the east and south UkraineNikolaev, Odessa, Kherson, Alchevsk, Lugansk, Gorlovka, Donetsk, Debaltseve et al. they belong to bridge Middle Aged.

Young city in Ukraine are those arising in XX Art. including after the Second World War. They are located mainly in industrial regions - the Dniester region and Donbass. Among them Verhnedneprovsk, Svitlodarsk, Cherry, Pripyat, LightVodskaya, Severodonetsk, Teplodar, Energodar et al. Available in the Ukraine, and "dead city" - Chernobyl and Pripyat, hiatus due to the Chernobyl accident in 1986 р.

 

Records Ukraine

Oldest cities in Ukraine are Odesa (Tyra), Sevastopol (Chersonese), Kerch (Panticapaeum) and Fedosiya, founded in VII art. BC The youngest Ukraine is a city in Slavutich, built in 1987 was to serve the BlackChornobyl NPP.

 

Fig. Kiev - Ukraine's ancient city

 

OF THE CITY. Cities in Ukraine perform different functions. On this basis distinguish taki Types: Multifunction (regional centers), Industrial (Krivoy Rog, Mariupol, Gorlovka), transport (Tulchin, Chop), medical-health (Yalta, Truskavets), Centers of agricultural complexes (Khorol, Yagotin) And others.

Singled out capital Ukraineм. Kyiv (2,7 million people). This is the largest city state, its administrative, cultural, Gospodarska center. Established over 1500 years ago, Kyiv already become a political center of Kievan Rus. This contributed to its development, adjustmentsultation various ties. In 1497 the city received Magdeburg right, ie the right to self-government. Capital powerful country in the heart of Europe long a major cultural and center. Also in Art. there was open schools, XVII Art. started functioned Kyiv Mohyla Collegium (laterst - Academy), which became centers Ukrainian education. From XIX Art. began operating Vladimir University (Now Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko).From XVIII Art. in industrial development, Railway construction to Odessa and Kursk. Since that time the town becomes great industrial center. In 1918 Kyiv became the capital, the UPR, since 1934 was - the capital USSR, and from 1991 was - the capital of the independenttion Ukrainian state.

Today Kyiv is not only significant industrial center machine building, chemical, light, food and other Galazey industry, not just transportation center, from which all end in Ukraine were built railroads and highways, but also Spiritual Center Ukrainian people. There remain many unique monuments of culture - Golden Gate, St. Sophia cathedral, s independence, KyivLavra, St. Andrew's Church VladimirSKI Church et al. Recently rebuilt destroyed St. Michael's Cathedral (Pas-m'yatka XI cent.) - burial place of Kiev princes and Church figures. Restored studies at the Kyiv Mohyla Academy, from which  was closed in 1817 , the tsarist government.  There are many museums and theaters, visit that  come лJews from all over Ukraine.

Kyiv - a large scientific and educational center of Ukraine. In it rightNational tsyuyut Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, research institutions, almost one hundred and five hundred higher secondary schools. Of Ukraine gained independence, its capital is constantly onovlyuyet-Xia and rebuilt. Maintain their appearance and ordered the street Kyiv, rehabilitated old and new buildings. Scenic landscapesshafty, old and new buildings, many monuments of culture do Kyiv unique and charming city, one of the best Europe.

 

Fig. The heart of Ukraine - Kyiv Independence Square

 

Urban TYPE. Urban-type - villages with a population Over 2 million people in which at least 2 / 3 of the population is workers, employees and their families (Ie residents not engaged in agricultural production).

Villages arising in industry, construction, railways. On their territory often posted by middle and high schools, research environment,you, medical and recreational facilities. Behind the appearance and functional structure they are similar to small cities. Ukraine has 886 towns, most of them - in industrial areas.

Urbanization. In cities and towns urban population in Ukraine, almost 68% of the population (at the beginning XX Art. the figure was only 16%). Apparently, the number and proportion urban population is growing. The process of increasing the number of cities, urban Domestic and distribution of urban lifestyles  called urbanization.

 

Fig. Total density population. Urbanization

 

The highest rates of urbanization observed in Ukraine in the middle XX Art. when industrialization took place - the industrial production. Currently, these rates significantly slowed down due to halt the flow of Migrants from rural locality depopulation (Table 2). The highest level Urbanization region are in industrial areas - Donetsk, Dnipropetrovska, Lugano(80 - 90%) and lowest - Transcarpathian, Chernivtsi, Ternopil (40%).

Suburbanizatsiya - The process growth and development of suburbs of large cities, due to exodus of the cities. As a result of this process formed the city agglomerations]. Agglomeration (Translated from Latin means "accumu") This concentration interconnected urban settlements, the core of which is a big city that is growing fast. Agglomeration is a system of settlement, characterized by convergence and even fusion territorial settlements that have a close relationship. The signs of agglomeration is a high density of urban population and continuity building, a large city-center and numerous smaller towns, that of his close ties, employment, cultural and everyday domestic migration population. The largest agglomeration in Ukraine Donetsk-Makiivs'ka, Dnipropetrovsk Dneprodzerzhinska, Kiev, Kharkiv.

In a general economytively crisis is a significant outflow of urban residents in earnings outside their villages (mostly abroad) and return Immigrants the villages back to their rural dwellings.

 

Table. The urban and rural population and its fraction of the total population of Ukraine

Years

Urban population

Rural Population

million people

%

million people

%

1897

4,6

16,0

24,2

84,0

1913

6,8

19,5

28,4

80,5

1940

13,7

33,5

27,3

66,5

1959

19,1

45,5

22,8

54,5

1979

30,5

61,2

19,3

38,8

1989

34,6

66,9

17,1

33,1

2001

33.5

67,2

15,8

32,8

2005

32,0

67,7

15,3

32,3

 

 


 

Records Ukraine

The highest level of urbanization has Donetsk Region (90%), lowest - Transcarpathian (37%).

 

Remember

Town (village) - a place residence and business people; distinguish between two types of settlements - city and rural.

City - a town that has more than 10 thousand inhabitants, mostly engaged in non-agricultural sectors.

Cities with populations differ (Small, medium, large, very large, major cities, time of occurrence (old middle-aged, young), with execution different functions (multifunctional industrial, Transportation, medical and health, agro-industrial centers).

Urban villages with a population Over 2 million people, where at least 2 / 3 of engaged in farm production.

UrbanizationThis process of increasing the number of cities, urban population and urban way of spreading Life .

Suburbanizatsiya - The process growth and development of suburbs of large cities, due to exodus of the cities.

 

Questions and Tasks

1. Compare the different regions of Ukraine by population density and level urbafurther the activities. What factors influence these rates?

2. As a share of Ukraine in terms of population? Using card, any examples of cities with different populations.

3. What groups of cities are distinguished by time of occurrence? Give examples oldest cities and the young state.

4. What features can run the city?

5. What are different processes of urbanization and suburbanizatsiyi? What are the causes of these phenomena in Ukraine?