§ 6. Mechanical movement and sex and age structure of population (textbook)

§ 6. Mechanical movement and sex and age structure population

 

1.     Remember how many people live in Ukraine.

2.     Because of that population in the country can change?

 

MECHANICAL Population movement. Population changeyetsya due to mechanical motion or migration - population displacement, associated with the change of residence. Migration there are internal and external.

 

Fig. Migration

 

Internal Migration - A movement of population between рiznymy regions within the country. They do not influence the overall Amountist population country, but its distribution between regions. Yes 70 years of the twentieth century. in Ukraine was an outflow of villagers, mostly youngand, in the city. While the rural population decreased by nearly 7 million persons. This in turn led to aggravation of emergency demographic situation in rural areas. In recent decades internal migration has decreased since high рEwen unemployment, which has covered many regions Ukraine does not increase the population transfer between them.

External migration (Off state) share of immigrants and emigrantsgrace. Emigration (departure abroad) a primarily Socialno-economic reason. Thus, due to difficult living conditions (bezzemellya, excessive taxes, national oppression) in the twentieth century. Ukrainian population of Galicia Bukovina, Transcarpathia emigrated across the ocean. In this mass emigration distinguish three waves. First - in the early twentieth century. When moved from Ukraine over 800 thousand individuals U.S., Canada, Brazil. The second wave was in 1920 - Then in 1939 a better life in U.S. and Canada looking for 190 thousand people. Instead, western regions of Ukraine was populated by Poles (in Lviv and Ternopil provinces they were over 30% of total population). Third wave, beginning 50 years of the twentieth century. was associated with the Second World war. During the occupation of the Ukraine to work in forced Germany was removed more than 2 million people. In the first decade  after the war in U.S., Canada, Australia, Brazil and Argentina left more than 180 thousand immigrants from Ukraine. In the postwar period became large scale migration from Ukraine to Siberia, Central Asia, Kazakhstan (developing virgin land).

Now for border people vyyizhdzha-yut insearch of better earnings. Our workers are in many Europe, Russia, Turkey, Israel U.S. and other countries. Most intensive migration outflow observed with the so-called depressed areas that characterized by the highest levels of unemployment, underemployment, very low wages. This emigration is called-yut of workers. A significant number of people leaves illegally. Over the last decade the number of emigrants exceeded 2 million persons.

Check-out population Ukraine - a problem that in the future could be threatened formation productive forces and strengthen the negative aspects of the situation. Because that go People young and middle age in this country are falling indicators fertility. It also promotes emigration of women and girls. Among those leaving from Ukraine, a large percentage of people with you-schoyu education and research degree. It shows outflow of Ukraine highly professional staff, so-called "migration of minds." Unfortunately the outflow of population Ukraine continues. This shows the complex economic, ecological and social situation in the country.

Immigrantsgrace - A  entry of people from other countries. End Twentieth century. of the ethnical conflicts MoldovaOn Caucasus and Central Asia had place of immigration of people from these regions. Among the large immigrant comprise people who were born in Ukraine, but long lived and worked in рiznyh regions former Soviet Union, or were deportation (expulsion). They are called immigrantsми. Since 1989 he began returning to Ukraine from Central Asia of Crimean Tatars. Since back almost 280 thousand Crimean Tatars and representatives of other deported nations.

Migration in Ukraine have negative balance. This means that the number of people who go from it more than those who enter. Til-ki one year difference between dropped and arrived tens of thousands of people.

 

Ukraine in space and time

Ukrainian Immigration

Also in the fifteenth century. craftsman Ukrainian lands to build churches traveled to Muscovy. During Cossack age (XVІ – ХVIII cent.) occurred with the forcible transfer of population in eastern Ukraine northern regions of Russia for the construction of commercial and military facilities, development of St. Petersburg. In the eighteenth century. due to the destruction of Zaporizhzhya Sich Ukrainian migrated to the Kuban (Krasnodar and Stavropol in Russia). There was the immigration center in Krasnodar (Nova Sich). In the nineteenth century. More than 1.6 million Ukrainian moved to Siberia. Thus, over time, Ukraine was supplier of cheap labor in different regions of Russia.

 

Fig. Resettlement and Ukrainian emigration

in second half XIX - Early ХХArt.

 

Records Ukraine

Currently in temporary jobs in Russia is almost 1 million people from Ukraine, Italy - 500 thousand, Czech Republic - 200 thousand, Portugal - 150 thousand, Spain and Slovakia - 100 thousand people.

 

Records Ukraine

Military conflict in Transdniestria in 1992 caused the inflow to Ukraine more than 60 thousand refugees.

 

 

AGE Population structure. Age structure - The ratio people of all ages: children of middle and old age. And in villages and towns Ukraine is the process of "aging nation," of the age The share of population structure people of retirement age. Now she is nearly 24%. However,  reduced the number of children (about 18%). Population aging is typical not only for Ukraine but also for all European States, but the high proportion of old people there increases due to high life expectancy, and in our country - through decreasinglikewise, the number of children.

 

Fig. The Crimean Summer

 

Fig. Young Ukrainian

 

Average duration living in Ukraine astinuously 1968, in particular women - 73 years and men - 63 years. It is much more lower rate than in developed countries (in Japan - 82 years Canada, Switzerland - 80 years Germany - 78 years). Deterioration all demographics, especially significant natural reduction in-population, shows the demographic catastrophe in Ukraine.

 

Fig. Composition of population by sex and age

SEXUAL Population structure. Sexual structure of the population the relationship between between men and women. In Ukraine, in the sexual population structure is dominated women, whose share is 53.5%. The male population dominates in Ukraine only to 30 years. More from this age to 60 years and the ratio between men and Women  to be similar. In the senior age groups (over 60) dominated by women. So, at age 70 -80 years Women constitute 70% of the population and men only 30%. The main reason for this phenomenon is greater life expectancy of women compared with men.

In Ukraine there are significant regional differences in the ratio of men and women. In those regions States where high proportion of older age groups will be higher and the proportion female population. For example, Chernihiv, Sumy region.

On gender and age structureUkraine's population shows decrease of vital. It graphically illustrates sex-age pyramid. It is irregular in shape - narrowed at the bottom and expanded at the top indicating that narrowed the type of population reproduction.

 

Remember

Migration it displacement from one residence to another.

Migration touvayut internal (Population movement between different regions within the country) And external (outside state).

Among the external migration distinguish emigration (travel outside the country) and immigration (entry into country).

Age structure population - a ratio of people of all ages: children of middle and elderly.

Sexual structure population - a ratio of men and women.

 

Questions and Tasks

1. What is called migration?

2. Analyze the current migration processes in Ukraine, expand their reasons.

3. Does migration occur in your area? Where to go largely people?

4. Enter the basic directions of the interstate migration of people from Ukraine.

5. Why in the age structure of population of Ukraine dominated the proportion of people retirement age?

6. Describe features of Ukraine's population sexual structure.

 

Geographical problem

Calculate balance Easy if you know that in 2003 the total number of foreign workers in Ukraine was about 93 thousand people, including  59 thousand  - Flowers.

 

Practical work 3

1.     Construct a graph of population of Ukraine certain period (eg, half a century), using data tables.

 

Table. Changing the population of Ukraine, millionpeople

 

1913

1920

1926

1932

1939

1950

1955

1959

1970

1979

1989

1993

2000

2001

2008

2009

35.2

26.4

29.5

32.2

40.5

36.6

39.3

41.9

47.1

49.8

51.7

52.2

49.7

48.5

46.4

46,03

 

2.     Draw conclusions about the causes of population changes in Ukraine.