§ 40. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident
1. Remember when the accident occurred at Chernobyl.
2. In which areas in Ukraine prevailing crisis and the disastrous environmental situation?
Most technological catastrophe of mankind. In April 1986 , in different languages in the world has entered the Ukrainian word "Chernobyl". For all humanity, it has become synonymous with a terrible man-made disaster and huge ecological disaster. Chernobyl - The name of a small town in Polissya mouth of Pripyat, which had a long history, its roots in Kievan Rus. Now This word symbolizes a terrible phenomenon, from which this town is not anymore para.
The accident at Chernobyl was, and has, unfortunately, still long to have a significant impact on the environment Ukraine. The explosion of a nuclear reactor and fires it in a short time in the horrible environment of up to 7 tons of nuclear fuel. This release of radioactive element Cesium-137 Was identical to the radiation from the explosion several dozen of these atomic bombs which the Americans dropped in 1945 , on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. Radioactive contamination most affected areas Ukraine and Belarus, but also noted the increase in radiation Russia, Sweden, Norway, UK and other countries, where in the first days after the accident the wind roznosyv clouds of radioactive substances.
This accident turned the unique the purity of the territory in the Polesie ecological disaster zone. In Ukraine contamination have been more than 8% of the country (almost 50 thousand km2land!), which focused on 2.3 thousand settlements twelve regions. The most affected areas Kiev, Zhitomir, Rovno, Chernigov і Cherkasy areas, Radioactive fallout was observed also in Vinnytsia, Khmelnytsky, Ternopil, Ivano-Frankivsk, Chernivtsi, Volyn і Kirovohrad areas. Over 3 million people are considered victims of this disaster, but certain dose of radiation exposure were significantly more residents of Ukraine.
Building a shelter (shelter) on emergency unit, primary measures to allow emergency workers to some measure to reduce the devastating effects of radioactive contamination. It was price made heroic efforts of hundreds of thousands of people - Liquidators, many of which have gone through life with the disease, resulting from exposure to radiation.
City Name Chernobyl derived from pre-Slavic words Chernivtsi – blackand boules – grass and one of the means species of wormwood.
First blow radioactive pollution suffered a strip of pine forest (about 450 ha), which is near the Chernobyl NPP. For several days after the accident, this forest almost "Burned out" by becoming rudym. After the burial of trees in the trenches in this area were planted new ones. Now the forest is restored. However, the burial place of the dead wood become sources of radioactivity in groundwater, only exacerbated environmental problems.
Chernobyl zone. Around the Chernobyl NPP radius of 30 km created Exclusion Zone, Called Chernobyl zone. From She had evacuated thousands of people of 186 well-populated areas of Ukraine and Belarus. Most of the area is in Ukraine. There hiatus in 1975 settlements, and immigrants were 90 thousand people. In the zone left their homes, the graves of relatives, monuments history and culture. Deserted ghost town was Pripyat - City workers power. In the area contains hundreds of burial of radioactive waste. Technology with their deactivation yet. And only in the Chernobyl limited time working people. They watch as shelter and APS (in 2000 power station was finally closed) and serve the Chernobyl zone. On the outskirts of living area over a hundred mostly older people who, despite the ban and threat to his health, returned to their homes.
As a result of air emissions amounts of radioactive substances were stable and durable contamination of cesium, strontium and plutonium. These substances emit radioactive rays and are called radionuclides. They have the ability to congest in organisms, water, soil, air and long-term impact on the environment, lives of people and animals (half-lifes of cesium-137 is 24 thousand years!). Therefore, in the area of significant contamination allowed to grow crops, gather berries, mushrooms, fowl, catching fishing, drinking water, smoking wood or leaves. Studies have shown that the main number of radionuclides in the forest in the upper 10 centimeters layer soil in their needles much longer than the leaves of trees. Many pollutants accumulated in bottom sediments themselves Kiev Reservoir.
However, the lack of people and their economic activities are extremely favorable conditions for reproduction wildlife in the Chernobyl zone. Significantly increase the population of boar, elk, deer, wolves, foxes, badgers, raccoon dogs, ferrets, once again appeared almost missing moose, beaver, European lynx, seen even traces of brown bear. Populations of many species in the area are the largest in Ukraine. Unfortunately, all the animals, like plants, radioactive contaminated substances.
During the years that have elapsed since the accident, constantly working to reduce radiation contamination Ukraine. Regular monitoring of radiation levels, the influence radionuclides in various environmental components and human health. Now Chernobyl zone - a scientific ground. In 2008 there was also created to store radioactive waste from other nuclear plants in Ukraine. This area of "Radioactive" is a kind of landscape subject to the safe attitude to use such powerful energy sources like nuclear and other achievement progress.
Consequences of the Chernobyl AES will long feel the population is not only Ukraine but the world. About noted the importance of their elimination in the Constitution of Ukraine (1996 City): "Ensure environmental balance in Ukraine, overcoming the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster - catastrophe of global scale, preserving the gene pool of the Ukrainian people is responsibility of the State "(Article 16).
Fig. "Shelter" on Chernobyl NPP, Pripyat
Impact geoecological situation on health. Environmental Condition environment significantly affects the health and life expectancy. In Ukraine environmental factors along with socio-economic is determinant in fertility and mortality. Since 1992 , the mortality in our countries than in fertility rates, so the decrease of population. This appears particularly acute in regions where significant radioactive and industrial pollution (Chernigov, Kiev, Zhitomir, Donetsk, Luhansk, Dnipropetrovsk and Zaporozhye region).
Radioactive contamination in Ukraine affect human health directly and indirectly. Radiation is harmful in large doses (exposure of people, causing them death) and small (increase in the incidence of people). It is known that 95% of the radionuclides enter the body through food, especially through milk, meat, fish and forest gifts. Therefore, they should be checked for these substances, especially in polluted regions.
Agricultural products collected in the contaminated soils are often hazardous to use. Thus, in wheat Cadmium can accrue - metal, which provokes different diseases. A high nitrates, caused by excessive fertilizer can cause a general poisoning of the body. Especially dangerous to health is water pollution. With poor quality water in the body can get bacteria and viruses, harmful substances. Acting on the human body for a long time toxic substances even in small doses lower immunity (the body's resistance to diseases). Consequently, the frequent cases of different diseases, aggravated existing chronic disease.
To maintain health need a clean environment, unpolluted food and water. So when planning your business activities, providing various needs of the population, will need remember to save the environment as most urgent needs, which provides our existence.
Chernobyl disaster, which occurred in 1986 he is considered the most man-made disaster of mankind and the greatest environmental disaster as a result of which environment suffered severe radioactive contamination.
As a result of emissions to air many radioactive substances were stable and long-term contamination radionuclides, which have the ability to accrue in the soil, water, organisms and effect on the environment, animals and humans.
Around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in a radius of 30 mile exclusion zone set up (Chernobyl zone), from which thousands of people were evacuated and prohibited grow crops, collect berries, mushrooms, fish, drink water or smoke tree leaves.
The state of the environment largely affect the health and life expectancy.
Question and objectives
1. Why the accident at Chernobyl NPP called the largest man-made disaster of mankind?
2. The more dangerous radioactive contamination?
3. What is the 30-km exclusion zone in terms of the settlement population and its economic activity?
4. Describe current natural processes in the Chernobyl zone.
5. As a major influence environmental pollutants on human health?
6 *. Does your area territories affected by radioactive pollution? Where are they located?