Theme 20. Geoecological Situation in Ukraine
§ 39. Geoecological situation
1. Remember that components are value for nature life and commercial activity.
2. Give examples of negative changes in PTC, caused human activities.
Concept geoecologicalsituation. Man as a biological and social creature lives and works in particular natural environment. It can positively or negatively affect health and human health depending on the combination of natural conditions of the territory, and the changes that were introduced to them by the person. Thus, living conditions people in a particular area depends on the particular geoecologicalsituation - state of the environment in a particular region, its degree of under sanitary and hygienic standards of living and natural environmental conditions of existence of living organisms.
In the state of the environment certainly affect its own natural processes and phenomena (eg droughts, forest fires, severe floods, hurricane winds, earthquakes, etc.). But modern geoecological situation almost everywhere in the world formed influenced by the man himself. In the process of life and economic activity of man is more uses different components of nature, while turning a huge number of non-core nature of life products. Thus it breaks the links between natural components and impoverishes modified by natural environment polluting components of geographic shell - the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and the soil, causing negative changes in the biosphere, including through supply chain (eg, accumulation of harmful substances in plants that in the process of moving food to animals, and more - in the body).
To assess the favorableness geoecological situation for human life use different qualitative and quantitative indicators. They fix violations Natural components and their state of pollution (emissions of harmful substances). These figures matched with maximum permissible concentration substances - Scientifically sound as possible of them in an environment where no there is a significant threat to human health (eg, sulfur compounds in the air heavy metals in soil, organic compounds in water). Depending on how these figures compare to a certain territory, formed a favorable or not favorable ecological situation.
Geoecologicalsituation in the country as changing from place to place, and at the same territory over time. A person can not only harm the environment, but also correct geoecological situation for the better.
Environmental conditions in Ukraine influences old and over-development of anthropogenic transformation of it, significant saturation of its industrial and agricultural production, compared small protected areas.
The main pollutants of the environment. Extremely large changes in the state Environmental Protection of Ukraine under influence of Industry.
Fig. Industrial companies - the largest Environmental Pollutants
As a result of mining activity decreasing piles of rocks, which is taken out of mines, mines and quarries. Often in dumps find themselves toxic substances that disperse in large areas get into the groundwater. This affects plant growth, health people. In all the dumps are 25 billion tons of rocks, they occupy an area of 50 hectares. Most dump hazardous substances at places of coal, ore, sulfur, potassium salts - in Donbass, Dnipro, Lviv-Volyn Basin, Carpathian. In areas of coal mine production method created piles - Bulk formation height to 100 of these "mountains" are not suitable for use. They are often spontaneous combustion of coal and rock methane explosions.
Fig. Slagheap near t. Peaceful Valley, Popasnajadistrict, Luhansk region.
Manufacturing firms pollute most air and water. Enterprises of Ukraine annually emit more than 6 million tons substances containing more than 200 kinds of harmful components. Most pollute the environment thermal, metallurgical and chemical enterprises. In quiet no wind over cities is often smog - Fog of smoke, soot and other impurities. Among the emissions - of carbon compounds, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur cause loss of acid rain. These rain inhibit growth of vegetable crops, fruit trees and bushes, destroy buildings and monuments. In emissions industry there are many toxic heavy metals that can accrue in products: lead, mercury, tin, copper, molybdenum, antimony, cadmium and others. The highest level of contamination seen in the cities of Donbas (Slavic, Makeyevka Kramatorsk, Yenakiyevo, Dzerzhinsk), Dnieper (Dneprodzerzhinsk, Dnipropetrovsk, Zaporizhzhya), Mariupol, Odessa, Zhitomir, Kiev, Cherkasy et al.
Fig. TPP and CHPare significant polluters of the environment
Big polluter of the environment is transport. He gives almost 70% of all emissions, which are the products of combustion. Along roads concentration of harmful substances including heavy metals, 10 - 20 times the maximum tolerance. So along the road may not graze cattle, pluck the fruit. Road transport - the first air pollutants and in large cities. Pollution environment is also observed along the railways, in ports and airports, which are remnants fuel vehicles. The largest emission accidents happen during transport. Thus, in 2007 , the railway accident in Lvivresulted in significant emissions of toxic soil and yellow phosphorus, and tanker accident in the Black Sea oil into the water.
Contamination of soil, water and biosphere and causes agriculturepeople, especially chemicalization agriculture. For a long time people used pesticides against pests of cultivated plants (weeds, various insects), without regard to their adverse effects on human health and animals. This includes excessive amounts of nitrates, which are assimilated crops as a result of fertilization of their cultivation. Even more complicated ecological situation in Ukraine and improper storage pesticides and fertilizers - often not equipped rooms, and even under outdoors. Often these substances get into the soil and water and poison them causing human disease.
Significant polluter of the environment are also utilities Human items, especially cities. As a result of people's accumulated solid wastes that are brought into open landfill, Household and sewer drains. To clean them established in the city sewerage structure, but often get contaminated water into rivers. Moreover, directly into rivers flowing rainwater, which zmyvayuchy streets bear reservoir oil, heavy metals, a large number of garbage.
A significant threat to people and the environment are numerous "Burial" and storage of hazardous chemical substances and ammunition depots, left a legacy of Ukraine military-industrial complexformer Soviet Union. Such warehouses across Ukraine more than 180, they are concentrated 2.5 million tons of explosives. Known Facts mass of people near a dangerous disease such objects (Pervomaysk region in Mykolayiv), explosions in artillery shells Artemivsk(Donetsk region) Novobohdanivka (Zaporizhia region), causing suffering people nyschylys building. In several places in the country remains very dangerous liquid rocket fuel. Destruction ammunition and explosive Hazardous Substances hampered by lack of funds.
Fig. Emissions of harmful substances from stationary sources of pollution in air (%, 2006)
Regional differences geoecological situation. In Ukraine distinguish territory with a favorable, moderately favorable, satisfactory, ill, tense catastrophic and environmental condition. These names reflected rise acute environmental problems in the territories. Favorable moderately favorable and Satisfactory situationestablished long ago mastered in regions where agriculture dominates activities (forest-steppe zone, the extreme east and west Polesie, Carpathians). This area with more favorable living conditions are smaller areas.
Resampler ecological situation characterized mastered relatively recently, but over-exploited steppe land polluted radioactive waste central Polesie, industrial areas around large cities. In the major industrial areas of Donbass, the Dnieper, around some cities Carpathian aggravated ecological situation develops into tense, and a 30-km Chernobyl zone - catastrophic.
Working with map
1. Check that accommodation population prevail in Ukraine.
2. Where prevailing tensions and catastrophic living conditions of the population?
3. What geoecologicalsituation is typical for your area and region?
Environmental Legislation situation. Significant contamination of the whole territory of Ukraine, adverse changes in the natural environment are reflected in the health and life expectancy, ground to Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine to declare its territory a zone of ecological disaster. Since 1991, when issued Law of Ukraine "On Environmental environment "Came into force and several other legislative acts on the protection of individual components of nature. They noted that civil protection and regulated use of the territory of Ukraine are subject to all natural ingredients and resources. Each citizen of Ukraine has the right to safe for its life and health of the environment.
From time to time in certain localities there are adverse changes in the natural environments that require the use of extraordinary measures by the state. They declare zones of environmental emergency, the legal status of which also uphold the law. Unfortunately, such zones in Ukraine is a lot.
Ukraine actively participates in international conservation activities and ensures implementation of international agreements on their territory. She - member of UNEP (the UN Environment), IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) and other organizations. In Ukraine acts of international Public Environmental Organization "Greenpeace».
Geoecological situation reflects the state environment in terms of ease or nespryyatlyvosti living conditions people.
The main pollutants of the natural environment in Ukraine are industry, transport, agriculture, utilities, military-industrial complex.
Geoecological situation in Ukraine has regional differences, almost half of its territory formed not too favorable conditions for living of the population.
Questions and Tasks
1. What is called geoecologicalsituation?
2. What factors influence the formation geoecological situation?
3. Describe the impact of major pollutants environment for its individual components.
4. In which regions of Ukraine environmental situation most disadvantaged and why?
5 *. Try to appreciate that geoecologicalsituation in your area or region.