Theme 18. Crimean mountains
§ 36. Crimean mountains and southern coast of Crimea
1. Remember that the age, origin and height are the Crimean Mountains.
2. What is the climate was formed on the South Coast Crimea?
Introduction. Crimean mountain of physical and geographical country stripe width reaches 50 km the south Crimean Peninsula of Sevastopol to Feodosia180 km. By features of the formation and structure, variety of landscapes and their picturesqueness Mountain Crimea - a very original creation, which stands out against the background more or less uniform neighbors - plain suhostepovoho Crimea on the north and Black Sea in the south.
Fig. Crimean mountains
Geological structure. In regard to tectonic Crimean mountains - a great fold, the southern wing is immersed in the sea. Raised and folded motion passed there already in the Mesozoic era, but the main processes took place during horoutvoryuyuchi Cainozoic. Then the southern part of Mountain Crimea fell in Black Sea Trench on a fault line. It formed a steep slope - South Coast Crimea.
In longitudinal fractures, to appear and cross, showed magmatism. In some cases, were volcanoes, evidence of What is a fossil extinct volcano - massif. In other cases zastyhala magma in cracks crust without breaking the surface. Over time, external forces (weathering, ocean waves), destroyed the rocks that were covered with arrays of magma so now they appear to crop as separate mountains - Ayudah, Castel. Tectonic processes in the Crimean mountains are still suspended, the evidenced by earthquakes.
Crimean mountains - it is mostly fold-hat mount. They bedding (sandstones, shales, limestones), and in some places - volcanic rocks origin.
Open air museum
Mountain massif - Jurassic extinct volcano from which lava poured twice. It is called a museum of minerals in the open air: there are found more than one hundred minerals and their varieties, including semi-precious cornelian, chalcedony, agate, yashmu.
Stone symbol of the Crimea
Business card The southern coast is a mountain Ayudah (Bear Mountain) which rises to 572 m above sea level. It was formed from frozen magma. Igneous rock is gray-green gabbro-diabase, harder than granite. It is a precious ornamental material.
Fig. Mount Ayudah, Gurzuf
Relief. Crimean mountains are formed by three parallel strands - external, internal and key, changing one one from north to south. Outer and inner strands are Cuesta - Elongated upraised topography asymmetric structure: their gentle north slope (corresponding to an inclination of bedding rock layers) and south - cool (formed as a result of "trimming" layers along watercourses breaklines). Outer Ridge lowest (400 m). In the north it gradually passes into the plain. Inner ridge higher (up to 700 m). External processes have created there weird shape. Main strand rises to 1 500 c. There is the highest peak and the Crimean mountains - г. Roman-Kosh (1 545 m). Central ridge divided tectonic fault and erosional processes on arrays of flat surfaces - jajly (Babuhan-Yayla, Nikitskaya, Chatyr-Dag, Ai-Petry, Yalta, Karabi-Yayla). In the Crimean mountains many water-erosion and karst topography. The plateau Chatyr-dag, for example, There, over 1000 karst root, 135 caves, mines, wells.
The south and south-eastern slopes Main Ridge, which rapidly break to the Black Sea, called South Crimean coast. This narrow (1 to 12 km) strip of coast where the rocks somewhere suitable to the sea, and places of retreat forming the amphitheater.
Fig. Geographical zoning
Longest limestone cave in Ukraine is red (Kizil-Koba) long, 21.1 km. Its halls decorated with stalactites, stalagmites, clusters crystals. The cave has an underground river flows, there are many lakes. In the past it was sanctuary, now arranged for tours.
Deepest cave in Ukraine is the FOOT (500 m), located on Karabi-Jajle.
Climate. Climate Mountain Crimea, as climate and plains of the peninsula is temperate continental. However, between them are significant differences. The rainfall in the mountains rising twice and is on average 600 mm per year and high tops - to 1 000 mm per year. Summer in the mountains of cool: the average July temperature is only 15°S. Winter bahatosnizhna with average temperatures January -4°C. In the Crimean mountains are often down the hail, and in the spring of highest mountains avalanches, which sometimes cause significant damage.
Instead, climate Southern Crimean coast warmest in Ukraine, and recalls subtropical Mediterranean (the so-called northern subtropics). It is influenced cyclones in winter and summer high atmospheric pressure. Are important as proximity non-freezing Black Sea and the mountains that protect the coast from Northern winds. The South Coast of Crimea positive year-round average temperatures: in January 5°C in the west to 1°C in the east, in July - about 24°S. Rainfall, which brings Mediterranean winds, mostly falls as rain in winter. Summer is hot and dry, but not exhausting the heat: refreshing sea breezes.
Fig. Southern coast of Crimea
Inland waters. In the Crimean mountains which all the rivers, which flow on the Crimean peninsula. Most are short and run into the Black Sea (Alma, Kacha, Black). The longest river - Salgyr carries water into the Sea of Azov. Summer in the Lower it dries. The mountain rivers are often narrow canyon valley. They are fed mostly by rain washAnd those that begin on the northern slopes of the main ridge, also talymy snow. In the upper reaches of some rivers built reservoir, the water of which is used for the needs population. In the mountains many sources.
Deep canyons in Ukraine is the Grand Canyon in Crimea. It giant crack on the northern slopes of Ay-Petry jajly in the thick limestone which over the millennia vhryzalasya river Auzun-Uzen. With a length of more than 3 km and a width not exceeding places 3 m depth canyon reaches 320 м.
The highest waterfall in Ukraine Uchansu waterfall on the same river. Water falls almost sheer height of the ledge 98.5 м.
Fig. Waterfall Uchansu
Vysotna explain. У Crimean mountains observed Explain soil and high altitude vegetation. In foothills’Yahya reigns of steppe vegetation typchakom and feather grass, and a little higher (from 500 m) - forest-steppe. There on sod-carbonate soils growing oak trees oak rock, fuzzy and conventional with admixture of maple, beech and hornbeam. Common bushes. On the slopes of mountains at an altitude of 700 - 1300 m is mountain-forest zone, where brown forest soils platyphyllous grow forests of beech, hornbeam, maple, ash, linden, pine. At the top-jajlah common mountain meadow soils. There stretched mountain meadows, which grow cyclamen, St. John's wort, typchak. On southern slope Main Range explain altitude vegetation also expressed quite clearly, although he has no solid soil cover, because it is interrupted by rocks and osypyschamy.
On Southern Crimea formed Brown earth. They frequently bushland fluffy oak, hornbeam Eastern and juniper, subtropical evergreen Landscape vegetation (cypress, laurel, myrtle, magnolia) And fruit trees (apricots, peaches, almonds, persimmon, fig). Up to 500 m suholyubni grow oak and spruce forests and shyblyak - Dense prickly thickets of thermophilic Mediterranean species (oak and furry rocks, arbutus, pistachio, hrabynnyk). Above an altitude of 900 to m zone is the Crimean pine and oak, and even higher (up to 1 300 m) in forests dominated Crimean beech.
Wildlife diverse. In the woods live roe, deer, wild goat, fox, badger, hare, marten, squirrel. Many species breeds Birds - jay, seagull,
neck black, zmiyeyid, peregrine.
Scheme EL poyasnosti
Vegetation richest Crimea in Ukraine: there numbered over 3 thousands of species (in the Carpathians - 2,2 thousand species).
Wildlife Management. For the protection of the environment created number of protected objects. In Crimean Nature Reserve Protected forests are valuable in Crimea - foothills, on the Crimean pine and yew berry surviving group high and juniper. Unique natural systems Jurassic volcanic massif and the coast in oberihayutsya Karadag Reserve. He is one of the most exotic corners of Crimea, original landforms and landscapes which are compete with the world's most famous park in the U.S. Yyelloustonskym. Naukovtsi Reserve are constant monitoring maritime, prairie and forest ecosystems.
Many protected areas established near Yalta. Yalta mountain and forest reserve - The richest in species composition of plants (1367 species, of which 138 are rare and endangered). In Preserve Cape Martyan guard relict Mediterranean forest of juniper, oak furry, Crimean pine, pistachio. Nikita botanical garden - One of the oldest in the world (founded in 1811 City). They collected unique collection of subtropical plants from all over the World (Palm, metasekvoya, white cedar, cedar, bamboo, etc.).. They rozsadzheni in infinity style that makes the garden beautiful.
Fig. Yalta mountain and forest reserve
Unfortunately, in recent years in the hot summer season on the south side of Main Ridge repeatedly encountered long fire due which burned thousands of exotic woods and bushes, including the reserved territories.
The picturesque landscapes of Crimea Mountains, dry and warm climate and sea water make this region one of the best resort areas Ukraine.
Fig. Nikita Botanical Gardens, Yalta
Crimean mountains - a fold-hat mountain formed three parallel strands (external, internal and main), which is well expressed altitude explain natural conditions.
On Southern Crimea, which was formed by subsidence of fault lines of fold structures in the Black Sea depression, formed natural Mediterranean-type conditions.
Questions and Tasks
1. Using geochronological table, tell us about the features of the earth's crust in Crimea.
2. What linked considerable expansion in the Mountainous Crimea caves?
3. What characteristics should climate on the southern coast of Crimea?
4. Describe explain the nature of high-rise in the Crimean mountains.
5 *. Compare the natural conditions of the Carpathian Mountain and Mountain Crimea. What they have similar and different features?