Theme 16. Steppe zone
§ 33. Steppe
1. Remember that features climate indicators in southern Ukraine.
2. What soils are formed under steppe vegetation?
Introduction. The steppe, which occupies about 40% of the Ukraine is the largest natural zone complex. It extends from southern border of forest to the shores of the Black and Azov Seas is more of the Crimean peninsula.
Relief and useful resources. Zone has flat desert terrain. In the south lie the lowlands - Black Sea, Priazovskaya and PivnichnokrymskaThe north and east lie Upland - spurs Podolsk and Prydniprovska, Priazovskaya and Donetsk. In the eastern part absolute altitude territory achieve the greatest performance - 367 м (d. Tomb Mechetnia). Mounds-grave are the exits to the surface of crystalline rocks of the Ukrainian Shield and Donetsk fold structures. For Donetsk Ridge typical manes - Narrow elongated raised. On the slopes many hills and ravines of hills. In southern lowlands common Pody (Or Prairie saucer) - shallow oval lower flat bottom. Unique phenomenon on the Kerch Peninsula is the mud that spew loamy soil. It pushes out of the ground methane gas that accumulates and rises of the earth's interior. His blisters from time to time on the surface of mud lakes. When the solution solidified mud, formed by volcanic cones truncated height 1 - 2 м.
The steppe zone is found significant deposits of stone carbon (Donets Basin), Railroads, manganese, mercury and uranium ores, salts. There are also natural gas, nickel ore. The steppe zone is rich in various natural building materials (Limestone, marl, clay), therapeutic mud.
Top of many mounds crowned in the desert stone stelae, which are dubbed "rock babamy. This is actually a symbolic statue bound armor in men. Their once installed on the graves of brave Scythian warriors.
Fig. Stone woman in the desert
Climate and inland waters. Temperate climate zone continental with Ukraine's largest temperature difference between winter and summer and the lowest rainfall. Average January temperatures vary from north south zone from -5 to -1 ° C, in July - from 20 to 23 ° C. Snow is only some years 1 - 2 months, but snow cover unstable. Often there are droughts, dry winds that cause damage to agriculture. The rainfall is 450 - 350 mm per year. Vyparovuvanist moisture greatly exceeds precipitation, so insufficient moisture throughout the territory.
In steppe negusto Rivers Network. His lower currents flowing to the sea the great river of Ukraine - Dnipro, Danube, Dniester, Southern Bug, Crosses the area Seversky Donets. Tributaries of the Dnieper - Orel, Samara, Makarov, and also Inhul, Kalmius, milk, Byrd fully form their runoff within the zone. Small shallow prairie river, on the top, they often dry up. In the south zone is large irrigation systems watereth field waters of the Dnieper. In steppe zone of many lakes: in the Lower Danube (Yalpug, Cahul etc..) On the shores of the seas (Sasyk-Kunduk, Shahany, Alibi) And Crimea (Sasyk-Sivash). Numerous lakes, estuaries - Dnistrovskyi Hadzhybeyskyy, Kuialnyk, Tylihulsk, Milk. In some lakes due to high vyparovuvanosti or connection with the sea water salty.
Admitting that the names of rivers come mostly from the Turkic words mean: Orel – curve(Per channel bends); Ingul – new lake (Average flow River is expanding and resembles a lake); Makarov – little Ingul; Kalmius (It was known by two names and Mius Kalka, which later merged into one) - thin as a hair and twisted, as the horn; Byrd – and that banks should urvysti. Milk (Meaning cloudy) got the name for the color of the water in which many minerals.
Interesting information on livu Orel is the flow of the Dnieper in Ukraine Narrative " Guillaume de Boplana: „…at the mouth of this river I have seen at one time drew more than 2 thousand fish, the smallest of which had one foot length. Andstoryk Dmitry Yavomytskyi for wealth of fish, fowl, and the coast - forest imagery called her milk with honey river banks. Ornithologists believe it Pryorillya Avian Eldorado: This home of over 170 species birds that nest thousand flocks on the banks.
Fig. Seversky Donets
Soil and vegetation cover and landscapes. Once steppes represented motley green seaWhich perekochuvalysya silver waves of feather grass. Only blue ribbon rivers and their valleys wildered bushes and canes, beams and steppe Scythian graves uriznomanitnyuvaly landscape. Vast grass expanse numerous herds roamed tours, silverfish, Saiga. Now, all the steppe areas where it may take tractor plowed and natural vegetation change on crops.
Variation of environmental conditions in the plains There are three subband – North, medium and pivdennostepovu, that change each other latitudinal bands. Pivnichnostepova subband takes most of the area. They formed black normal. In motley steppe Plants bloom at different times, so it looks different every season. Spring first blossom tulips, crocus, hyacinths, and later - yellow adonis, prairie cocks and violets, then - feather grass, tonkolistny peony, sage, vetch, meadowsweet, kale, cornflower, flax Austrian. Since mid-summer desert burn, but fall due to rain, green moss on again, and in winter perepochyvaye.
У serednostepoviy subzone common less fertile Southern black. They formed fescue-feather grass steppesThat for species composition is much poorer than the motley. There are growing feather grass, typchak, cloves, yarrow, sage. However, vegetation cover loose.
Pivdennostepova subbandCovering the Black Sea and Azov and the Crimean plain, receives the most solar radiation, but has considerable moisture deficit. They formed chestnut soilWhich often alternate with saline and saline. In Wormwood steppe grows suhostepova and deserted Vegetation: wormwood, typchak, zhytnyak, artemisia black cress yellow. Plants form a separate island, alternating with bare sandstone places. In Soils becomes plain green-gray hue and resembles the desert.
The steppe zone is different from the forest absence of forests on watersheds. Small in area forests of oak and elm (Gorges) grow only in the beams. On their slopes form thickets thorns, hips, almonds steppe, steppe cherry. In Levada valleys spread of willow, elm and herbaceous vegetation. Vdovzh roads and field windbreak plantings.
The main wealth of the steppe zone - soil. Exactly due to their high fertility is a major step Rural Ukraine. It raises the high yields of grain (wheat, corn, rice, millet), technical (sunflower, Lena-kudryavtsya, tobacco), attar, vegetables (tomatoes, peppers) and melons (watermelon, cantaloupe) cultures.
Wildlife areas are poorer in species composition, than in the forest. In many desert rodents - ground squirrel, hamster, marmots, jerboa, mice, moles. Numerous and various birds - cranes, eagles, owl Strepetov, quail.
Fig. European Howrah
Fig. Great jerboa
Fig. Adder prairie
Fig. Steppe Eagle
Among forest steppe
In the nineteenth Art. due to excessive plowing grasslands exacerbated the problem of water erosion, droughts and dust storms. To protect margins while was launched afforestation. Wonderful green oasis among the desert known left Scientists G. Vysotsky and V. Dokuchaev, V. foresterGraff, V.Skarzhynskyy. The original forest park created in its farm Hope, near Kirovograd outstanding writer Ivan Karpenko-Kary.
Nature and nature protection. Steppe zone belongs to areas which are inhabited since ancient times different peoples, but they are long chamber and were little affected by humans. Territory always been under steppes raids Asian hordes of Huns, Pechenegs Khazars, Polovtsian, Tatars, Turks, which influenced the development of these lands. Nomads mainly engaged in hunting, cattle grazing and fishing. Up to XVII Art. and through malolyudnist danger that's been challenged on the south, the plain called NOMADS. With the establishment Zaporizhzhya Sich mastered his Ukrainian Cossacks, who fought hard and with oppressor, and brought the earth-freedoms.
The most intensive development took place in the desert XIX – XX Art. Continuous plowing virgin land (arable land accounts for almost 90%) led to the destruction of natural steppe vegetation and wildlife depletion. It was promoted and development mining waste contamination enterprises coal, metallurgical and chemical industries, power station. Therefore, in the desert almost remaining areas of natural vegetation. Now only the reserves can provide understanding of the biodiversity that once prevailed there.
Ukrainian steppe natural reserve covers 4 department, reflecting the different types Steppes: from meadow to the motley-grass-fescue. Only Khomutov steppe You can see 12 species of feather grass. Stone graves that rises among the vast plains, historians consider the place of burial of the Scythian kings. They guard the Red kosarykiv and orchids. Cretaceous flora - A unique area where pine grow Kreidyana, dzvinets chalky, Fig-wort and other Cretaceous kreydolyubni plants.
Lugansk Nature Reserve - A monument motley-fescue-grass steppes, which have been preserved as small patches in the three branches - Striltsivskomu steppe, Provalskomu steppe and Stanichno-Lugansk. There are also protected by marmot European and other animal species. У Biosphere Reserve "Askania Nova”the only protected area in Europe fescue-grass steppes, which grows over 400 species of plants, including more than 40 species - and nowhere else. There also domestication of animals is from different regions of the world - Bison, deer, horses Przewalski, antelopes, ostriches, zebras, Kulan, mouflon. Danube Biosphere Reserve, including protected wetlands lands of the Danube Delta - a real bird paradise: live there half of the species of birds of Ukraine. У Dnieper-Oril's'ke Nature Reserve Protected Dnieper flowing, flood meadows and lakes, aquatic plants and animals.
Azov-Syvas'kyi National Park created to study coastal and Preserve natural complexes Northern Azov. In national park "Saint Hill, that the average flow Seversky Donets River, protected by chalk-rock inselbergs with white chalk and kreydopodibnoho clays and burs from relic Pine chalk.
Oldest nature reserves in Ukraine “Askania NovaFounded in 1889 was Baron F. Fold-Fein.
In the Danube Delta reed height of two men grow, and under its canopy of sedge and reed mace, form a real slum, impenetrable for humans. These are the largest in Europe, reed beds is the junction poultry and fish ways. There, resting migratory birds - geese, ducks, swans, goose, sandpiper, Lt. herons, cormorants, pelicans pink. A Strait Delta going to pass for spawning fish - sturgeon and salmon.
Fig. Biosphere ReserveAskania Nova
t. Askania New
Steppe natural zone, which is the largest in Ukraine zonal PTC (40% of the territory), has flat terrain, temperate continental climate, which constitutes the largest in Ukraine and smallest continental rainfall, fertile black earth and chestnut soils.
Grass steppe steppe vegetation survived only in national parks and small nerozoranyh areas.
Questions and Tasks
1. Discover the interactions between climate, soil, flora and fauna on the example of the steppe zone.
2. Explain why the steppe zone is the least forested.
3. What are the nature-protected areas are in the plains zone?
4. What are the adverse effects of natural processes observed in the steppes of Ukraine?
Practical work in June
1. Apply a contour map of the natural zones of Ukraine.
2. By thematic maps of the atlas give a comparative description of natural conditions and wide-areas of mixed forest-steppe and steppe.
3. Explain how under the influence of human activity has changed the nature of each zone.