Theme 15. Area of forest
§ 32. Forest steppe
1. Remember that soil is formed in the forest.
2. What are the features of propagation in forest vegetation and animal world?
Introduction. Forest steppe - a transition zone between and wide-mixed forest and steppe. South conditional limit natural area passes through cities Kotovsk - Kirovograd - Kremenchug - Krasnograd - Volchansk. Forest-wide band extends from the southwest to the border with Moldova to the northeast Russian border, occupying 25% of the territory of Ukraine. Distinct zone boundaries is not, because the steppe areas vklynyuyutsya islands in the forest zone, and some forests arrays are coming into the area of steppes.
Relief and minerals. Right Bank of the forest is at higher elevations - Podolski таDnieper, and left bank - to Dnieper Lowland. Only in the far east area goes to spurs SerednoruskoyiUpland. Platopodibni surface right-bank hills alternating with horbohir'yamy. Their margin strongly dissected by ravines and gorges. The same topography and slopes Serednoruskoyi Upland and Poltava plainThat is adjacent to it. In general, surface westerly and tilted to the east of the Dnieper, the absolute height changes from 380 m in height and 230 Podolski m SerednoruskiyHighland 50 m near the bed of the Dnieper.
A characteristic feature of the landscape almost the entire territory is high right bank of the river, heavily dissected by ravines, and left banks with low terraces. River flood plains and low terraces are often waterlogged, higher terraces occupy the field locations.
Within the forest are deposited lignite (Dnieper basin), Oil and natural gas (Dnieper-Donetsk oil-region), Natural building materials (gypsum, limestone, kaolin, marl, sand). In places of the surface rocks of the Ukrainian Shield is deposits of marble, labradorite, dolomite, graphite, shale oil, and in swamp - amber.
The largest ravine in Ukraine - Hmilyanskyy - A length of more than 8 depth of 70 km and m appeared near Cannes (Cherkasy region).
These "Mountains" tower high above the Dnipro to 243 m and is part Prydniprovska Upland. They - the unique monument of nature: there rocks of different ages crumpled into folds, shifted from its original place and upraised. This ancient sediments were above, and those that formed later - under them. Geologists call this phenomenon Kanevsky dislocation.
Climate and inland waters. The climate in the forest-steppe zone moderately continental. It grows in the eastern continental direction. Average January temperatures vary from-5 ° C in the west to-7 ° C in East, in July - under 18 ° C to 20 ° C. The rainfall decreases north to south and from 600 to 500 mm per year. Almost as much water and evaporates moisture so natural area sufficient. In some years there in the forest drought.
Rivers form Dnieper, Southern Bug, Dniester and its tributaries. All have river valleys and the shores of asymmetric slow flow. At the intersections of solid rocks of the Ukrainian Shield, where the outputs of granites partitions off the bed and the Southern Bug Mountain Tikych, Formed rapids. Rivers are mixed power, most flowing spring and in June. Dnieper is navigable. In last time was for shipping and its left tributaries, such as Sula, Psel, Vorskla. But due to destruction forests in their valleys they are very obmilily. Right tributary of the Dnieper - Ros, Tyasmyn also shallow.
Lakes in the forest a little. They are in high flood left tributaries of the Dnieper. Numerous lakes-old women who were once in the same flood Dnipro waters flooded Kakhovskoe and Kremenchug reservoir. Lack natural reservoirs offset rates are established by the many communities points.
Origin of names of many rivers have not yet unraveled, there are different Definitions and interpretation of the Old Slavic and Turkic words. Yes Sula probably means wet place; Vorskla – white water (For coastal cliff composed by white sands and chalk sediments) or vorchaty; Psel – bows wet place; Ros – moisture, dew; Tyasmyn – stone (In line is the output of crystalline rocks on the surface).
Fig. Ros River near the village. Yablunivka, Bilotserkivskiy district, Kiev region.
Soil and vegetation cover. In forest dominated by fertile black (typical and ashed) formed on or lesah loess loam. In widespread decline meadow soils, Here and there - peat.
Natural vegetation is represented by forest and prairie species. Forest land is only 12 %. Woods remained in the valleys rivers and Mesopotamia. They grow on gray forest soils and degraded chernozem (which decreased humus content, and they become less fertile), which were previously under steppes, and then grown trees. Forestry formed mainly oak and hornbeam. In broad beams common ravine forests in which oak, hornbeam, maple, linden, hazel, spindle tree et al. On the sandy banks of the Dnieper and Donets Seversky, which reached the tongue ancient glaciers, islands occur pine forests.
In forest areas directly adjacent steppe but it does not take large areas, because it changed the gardens and fields, which grows various crops (wheat, barley, oats, buckwheat, sugar beets, potatoes, vegetables). Motley grass steppe natural preserved on the slopes of hills and river banks. Quite a large area of steppe meadows are occupied. Terrestrial grasslands are in watersheds of rivers and their slopes. There are growing adonis, anemone, clover, tonkonih, awnless, feather grass, spiked speedwell, hadyuchnyk, St. John's wort. This is mainly perennial plants with roots and stems are formed sod. Lowland meadows are in decline, close to the surface where ground water are deposited. They with extensive vegetation cover. In the flood meadows growing sedge, reed mace, strilolyst, cowslip, cicuta. Water Bodies decorated jugs yellow, white waterlily, water fern.
In the forest-steppe and steppe inhabited species: wild boar, roe deer, fox, marten, rabbit, squirrel, mole, vole, serpent. Many birds - woodpeckers, owls, larks, storks, partridges, thrushes.
Landscapes. Inequable relief in different parts zone of influence and other natural ingredients, so forest into three geographical region. In Dniester-Dnieper province common and different forest-steppe vysochynni landscapes. In Left-Dnieper province dominated steppe and lukostepovi lowland landscapes, and in Serednoruskomu land - Steppe vysochynni. In the valleys of large and medium rivers were formed flood meadow landscapes.
Nature and nature protection. The territory of the forest-steppe mastered long ago. It was on the verge of the forest and steppe were the best conditions for life people. Wood gave people shelter from enemies, material for building and heating homes, and free from forest areas used for farming and cattle breeding. This is our ancestors And yet engaged inV - II millennium BC. e. In HVII - XVIII Art. significantly increased the number settlements. Large areas of forest were chopped down. Introduction trypilnoyi system arable farming has led to depletion of soil, so even then it begin to fertilize with manure. In the XIX - XX Art. impact on forest landscapes of cities, increase the population of settlements, transport, trades and industry. Almost all natural steppe areas were turned into fields and gardens, many forests in upper river Sula, Vorskla, Psla, which is mention in historical sources XVII Art. were destroyed.
Intensive economic development of forest, ruthless exploitation of natural resources have resulted in significant destruction of nature as in forest and steppe areas of the zone. This requires the establishment of protected areas where there are preserved natural systems. However, such plots in the forest-steppe zone remains very small. Today, large protected areas in forest only two. Kanev Nature Reserve - One of the oldest in Ukraine (1923 ), where combined history and nature of people. It covers the ravines and hills right bank of the Dnieper and Dnieper Islands. Land there is littered with archaeological monuments from the time Paleolithic. Sensitive geological reserve is formation, hornbeam forest and monastic mountain that rises to 100 m above the Dnipro River and is known as Tarasova mountain. There are known to be reburied genius Shevchenko the Ukrainian people.
St. Michael virgin - Branch (office) of the Ukrainian Steppe Reserve. There oberihayetsya only in the Ukraine area in the meadow steppe within the steppe zone. Many plants (species of astragalus, palchatokorinnyka, Iris, feather grass, hazel grouse, sonu,) Red Data Book of Ukraine.
Fig. Grouse chess
In the forest-steppe zone, which lies in the middle strip Ukraine, widespread vysochynni and low-lying form relief, ravines and beams, in a temperate continental climate under grass vegetation formed different types of black earth and under the forest - forest gray soils.
To save valuable objects of nature, rare species of plants and animals in the forest created Kanev Nature Reserve and branch of the Ukrainian Steppe Natural Reserve St. Michael virgin.
Questions and Tasks
1. Why forest-steppe transition zone between the forest feel and desolation?
2. What a relief in the area of forest?
3. Tell us about the climatic features of the middle zone of Ukraine.
4. What is the typical steppe vegetation?
5. Using additional sources of information, prepare a story about one of the nature reserves area.