Theme 14. Zone of mixed forests and wide-
§ 31. And mixed forests platyphyllous
1. Recall, for which natural areas is Ukraine.
2. What types of trees common in the woods Ukraine?
Introduction. Forest area lies in the northern part of Ukraine. It takes 28% of the country. It distinguishes between two subband: Mixed (coniferous-wide) and wide- forests. Mixed forests, which are called Polissya, Stretching from west to east wide strip between the northern border of Ukraine and a conditional line that cities is Vladimir-Volyn - Lutsk - Rovno - Zhitomir - Kyiv - Nizhyn - deaf. Polesie - a amazing edge of forests and rivers, where there are no devastating droughts, where Many villages in the spring ride the streets in boats, where the air smells of pine and hops, and it seems like it can drink like birch juice. So poetically describe Polishchuky their land.
In western Ukraine, mixed forests are changing in wide-south, extending to CarpathianHills and the border with Moldova.
Relief and minerals. Subbandmixed forests is mostly Pripet marshes. Its surface is almost flat, a little old to the Dnieper and Pripyat. Its absolute height rarely exceed 200 m Farmland is the highest Slovechansko-Ovruchskyiridge (300 m). In marked influence glacier relief: it brought from the north polished stones, boulders, leaving deposits of sand in the form fields, hills and Moreno shaft (Volyn strand). Pereviyani blown sand dunes form a length of 5 km and a height of 18 м.
Forests cover wide-hill - Volyn, Bore, Holohory-Kremenets logs, Podolsk, Hotinskuyu. Highlands were raised late Cainozoic tectonic era, resulted in tie river valleys spread of water-erosion surface forms. As a result, relief in many places is horbohirnym, height often exceeds 400 m above sea level. However, in upland watershed areas Podolsk occur flat hill - plateau. Podolsky height and Prut-Dniester Rivers - Ukraine's largest concentration of karst topography. There concentrated more than 100 caves in gypsum deposits. Among them is the longest in the world - Optimistic (200 km) Cinderella (80 km) and Lake, Crystal, Mlynky and others).
In the places of occurrence of shallow crystalline rocks found deposits of copper (Volyn region), Kaolin, granite, basalt, labradorite, gabbro and precious stones - topaz, jasper, amber (Rivne, Zhytomyr region), Phosphate (Sumy, Khmelnitsky region). Everywhere in Polissya are deposits of peat, and the tail - limestone. On the border with Poland is Lviv-Volyn coal basin.
Like stone island rises to a height of over 300 m on a background of green Polesie lowlands logs. Recalling the ancient fortress, he lies on the foundation, made red and pink quartzite and sandstone. Both are in the walls of St. Sophia Cathedral, Golden Gates, Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra in Kiev. Logs - the only place in Ukraine, which produce heat-resistant mineral pyrophyllites used burners for beacons.
Climate and inland waters. Temperate climate zone continental. The temperature varies from west to east in January of -4 to -8 ° C in July - 17 to 19 ° C. In the forest area falls most rain among the plain territories of Ukraine (600 - 700 mm per year).
When there is little moisture vyparovuvanosti excessive. Therefore, a feature of forest area is bogging. Among the marshes dominated by low-lying, lying along the rivers. In the central-eastern zone crosses DniproTaking tributaries Pripyat Desna, a beetle, Irpen. Thick rivers form their river systems. Pripyat rises in the northwestern part of the Volyn region, and only their Upper Lowlands and is located in Ukraine. Her numerous sleeves, ducts and old channels that mostly pass through the reduced area in the spring filled with water and form a continuous stretch of water. Major tributaries Pripyat - Turia, Stokhid, Stir, Uh, Gorin (With tributary Sluch). All rivers with wide valleys with low shores, slow flow. They are flowing, because the feed, primarily precipitation. In the far west has similar characteristics Western Bug. In the south zone outlines DniesterAnd its left tributaries, crossing the hill Podolsk, create The White deep, often canyon Valley.
In Polissya most lakes in Ukraine. Mostly are small ponds with clean running water. In the northeastern part of the zone are Shatsky Lakes (Svitiazke, Pulemetske, Luke, Shortet al.) which are mainly karst origin and feed streams and sources. Along the rivers spread small lake-old women. In Podolski Hills there are small karst Lake-“windows”.
The names of rivers, which originate from the Old Slavic words, different versions interpreted as follows: Прَyp'yat – flowor and fast-moving; Desna – Copyright orand that shines brightly; Stir – great; Gorin – source or river originating from the mountain; Sluch – distorted, waterloggedor and that zluchaye (connecting).
Soil and vegetation cover and landscapes. In the natural zoning Ukraine subband mixed Forest stands out as Polessky geographical region (or Ukrainian Polesie) and subband wide-forests - as West end.
У Polissyan physical-geographical provincemixed forest dominated by sod-podzol soils. Their fertility low due to significant over-acidity and moisture. Are even less fertile soils formed in river valleys and the lower - meadow, marsh, peat-swamp і peat.
Compared to other natural systems plain part of Ukraine Polesie vegetation (forest, meadow and marsh) better preserved, but the name "woodlands" rather reflect its natural history rather than current status. Once forests covered 90% of the territory they now occupy 25%. Another 10% of the area falls on the meadow. Characteristic for the Polesie marshes are more than 4% of its territory. Overall, Polesie, more than 1500 species of plants.
Since most forest communities pine-oak forests. They form the undergrowth hazel, elder, willow, spindle tree, many herbal plants. On the sandy terrain grow negusto Pine forests (Burs). Shrubs and grasses in which almost no land decreased continuously covered with moss. Wetted area occupied mainly alder and birch forests. Luke In Polissya not only floodplains, but also at the site cleared forests. The greatest diversity of herbaceous plants - in the flooded meadows. Sometimes there are sand covered with heather or thyme. Lowland swamp famous motley grass, among a male chicken bog, verbozillya, bobrivnyk, Bilozir marsh. Horse marsh, Covered with moss, cranberry, sundew, are rare. Among the sandy lowlands Polesie are large marshes, covered tussock of grass.
У Western Ukrainian land under wide- forests formed gray forest soils. In progress eastward spread black, which once thrived big island meadow and steppe vegetation. Dominant in Last platyphyllous forests now cover less than 15% of the land. Dominate deciduous species are oak and beech (West), oak and hornbeam (east). FAQ as ash, maple, linden, occasionally occur artificially planted pine and spruce. The steppe vegetation survived in small patches on the slopes of hills or in ravines.
Forests living roe deer, raccoon dog, boar, wolf, fox, marten, hare, protein. Occasionally brown bear and lynx. Along the rivers, build their beaver huts. Many birds - black cock, grouse, crane, stork.
Thus, physical and geographical diversity of the forest zone Ukraine created by such natural landscapes: mishanolisoviconiferous-wide low-lying (Polesskiye) shyrokolystolisovi vysochynni, Flood meadow, marsh and meadow. But now most of the area occupied by natural man-made landscapes.
The most long-living forest is oak. In the tract Josephine (Rivne region) 1300 summer growing oak, Zaporozhye famous oak that island on the Dnieper Khortytsya, 800 years.
Relic of past ages
Azalea PontThat grows in Ukraine Slovechansko-Ovrutskomlogs, remote from the main area of distribution - the Caucasus and Asia Minor - more than 1 000 km. This type of - Relic of the Tertiary period, ie contemporary mammoths.
Nature and nature protection. Forest zone of Ukraine and neighboring Belarus and Poland are Slavs originated. It is from here they settled throughout Eastern Europe. Long time, forest area negusto was settled, the natural forests preserved in almost pristine form. Active destruction of forests due to human economic activity began in western Ukraine in KharkovVІ Art. and in Polesie - in the nineteenth Art. Further intensified agricultural land development, industrial logging, there were cities, laid roads. In our time Agricultural landscapes cover over 65% of Polese and about 80% - wide-forests. Huge changes have occurred in natural landscapes after draining wetlands and straightening man river channels.
At the forest Area in 1986 was There was an accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. With 30-km zone around her people were evicted, resulting in natural processes there occur without their participation, but under the influence of high radiation contamination.
To save Polesie landscapes, forest and marsh vegetation in subzone mixed forests organized number of protected areas. In particular, Rivne Nature Reserve study and protect the bog-peat arrays. In Polissyan Reserve conduct surveillance of the environment in conditions of high radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl accident. In Shatskiy National Park protected are 22 lakes in which encounter valuable fish species (pike, carp, perch, eel, catfish), and swamps set among pine forests and vilshannykiv. In Mezynskomu and Desnyansko-Starogutskiynational parks protect wetlands and woodlands and flood meadows lake.
Landscapes, typical subbandwide-forest and protected. In Nature PreserveBore” and national park „Yavorivskyi " protect areas of so-called average European forest of beech and oak. In Reserve "Medobory” and National Park Podolski Tovtry” protect the unique natural complexes Tovtry Ridge.
Mixed forests (Polesie) occupy the northern part Ukraine, and platyphyllous - west.
Subzone characterized by mixed forests swamps, glacial landforms, sod-podzol soils pine-oak, pine and alder woods.
For subband wide- Forest characteristic vysochynnyy relief, gray forest soils and black earth, oak and beech and oak-hornbeam forests.
1. Describe geographical area and wide-mixed forests. Find a map by which areas of Ukraine are completely or partially located in the area.
2. What are the differences in relief subdivisions mixed forests and wide-?
3. Why Polissya swamps and formed dense river network?
4. Name the plant communities and representatives of the animal world wide-and mixed forests.
5. As in the forest area is protection and protecting the natural environment?
6 *. In our mixed forests common evergreen tree that can withstand frost up to -650C. Finland as a symbol of his life. What is this tree? Using different source of knowledge, try to learn more about this green miracle.