Theme 13. Geographical zoning
§ 30. Geographical zoning
1. Remember, in which geographical area Ukraine is located.
2. What natural systems are changing zonal?
The notion of Fizyko-geographical zoning. Between geographic shell as planetary nature complex and geographical landscape as its smallest parts of a system of regional natural-territorial complexes. They are different in value territory. One of the goals of physical geography is their identification, delimitation, research and mapping, ie implementation physical-geographical (Or natural) zoning.
Considering the components and factors of development natural-territorial complex, you probably noticed that some of them are Zoning and other nezonalnymy. Belong to the zonal ones common to Earth's surface patterns according to geographical (latitudinal) zoning - bands that change each other from the equator to the poles. Zonal changes of solar radiation, heat and moisture distribution, soil-plant cover. Nezonalnymy (azonic) are the factors and components of the PTC, location which is independent of the geographical zone. First of all, geological structure and relief, and some climatic features. According to this Regional ITC also divided into zonal and azonic.
Thus, zonal PTC - A natural complexes, resulting from latitudinal manifestation of natural processes and phenomena. These include geographic zones, natural areas and subband. The largest azonic PTC is natural complexes of continents and oceans, and within them - geographical country and natural aquatic complexes seas. Physiography of the country are divided into smaller azonic PTC - geographical region, region and district. These PTC are physical and geographical units zoning of Ukraine.
Zonal natural unit zoning. The largest zonal part of the geographical environments are geographical area. They emit, primarily by the number of arrivals and singularities of solar radiation circulation of air masses. Ukraine is almost entirely located within moderate geographical zone Northern Hemisphere and only on the southern slope Crimean Mountains and the southern coast of Crimea natural conditions have features subtropical zone.
Due to differences in the distribution of heat and moisture within the zone formed natural areaswith its inherent climate, soils, vegetation and fauna. In Ukraine - A forest, forest-steppe і steppe zone. Of course, natural areas are characteristic only for the plain part of the country, which clearly shows latitude zonation. In the mountains they are absent: there is interaction natural components in accordance with laws is a high-rise poyasnosti, ie bands that change with each other in height.
Within the natural areas are often significant moistening of the differences in area and heat input. This causes diversity of soil and vegetation, and natural areas that can divided into subband. In Ukraine, this division have the forest and steppe zones. In the forest area are distinguished subbandwide-forest and mixed forestsIn the steppe - North, mediumand pivdennostepovu.
Azonic natural unit zoning. The largest units azonic zoning, land is фizyko and geographical country - PTC, formed in the large tectonic structures (platforms, folded structures) that represent major landforms (plains, mountain system). Therefore among physiographic countries distinguish plain and mountain. Ukraine lies within three physiographic countries:East- (Its south-western part) Carpathian mountain (Its middle part) and Crimean mountains. Eastern European flat country covering over 90% of the total area Ukraine, the mountain country as a whole accounts for 7%. In the south of the territory of Ukraine goes to natural aquatic complexes Black й Sea of Azov.
Geographical end - A part of the natural area or subband within the plain country or part of a direct mount. The main reasons allocation of lands is the heterogeneity of the geological structure and relief, and remoteness of the area from the oceans that causes the change in continentality climate. For example, forest-steppe zone are three geographical land: the Dniester-Dnieper (In the parts and Podolsky Dnieper Upland, which are on the Ukrainian Shield) Left-bank Dnieper(The Dnieper Lowland) and Serednoruskyy(Corresponding to slopes of the same height). Several physical and geographic territories emit also in the plains and its subband. Instead, each of the two subdivisions forest zone creates single large geographical region: subbandmixed forests - Ukrainian Polesie, subbandwide-Forest - West end. Each of the mountainous countries also Ukraine is represented in a physical-geographical boundary - Ukrainian Carpathians and Crimean mountain land. Total in Ukraine produce 14 regions.
Within countries there are differences in their natural conditions associated with varying geological and geomorphological structure territories. This makes the selection less than the PTC - geographical regions і physiographic areas. Yes West shyrokolystolisovyyend divided into five geographical regions, and Of Western vysochynna region This land - 6 physiographic regions. And each areas has inherent landscapes.
Geographical zoning is important not only the knowledge of natural processes and phenomena, but also for economic of human and environmental work. Having established boundaries of a PTC and studied its structure and internal relations can be justified rationally Nature in it, to identify measures to improve environmental situation, set the territory on which it is desirable to carry out environmental activity.
Crimean mountains as a regional ITC is the smallest largest units of physical-geographical zoning in Ukraine (area - about 10 thousand km2). However, in the natural system of zoning All Eurasia consider them as part of a large Crimean Caucasian mountain country.
Eastern edge of European forests
Until recently, maps of physical and geographical zoning Ukraine forest-steppe zone affected stripe across the territory Ukraine up to its western borders. But now West geographical region in which contemporary landscapes generally similar to the steppe, refer to forest zone. Determined that this area is an extreme eastern distribution model for Western and Central Europe platyphyllous (oak and beech) forests. To active agricultural development are covered up to 90% of the land.
Scheme of physical and geographical Ukraine's territory
Fig. Geographical zoning
Working with map
1. Within which natural areas and subdivisionsUkraine located?
2. What area covered geographical country?
3. What geographical land distinguished within steppe zone?
Geographical zoning - Is the detection, delimitation, studying and mapping regional natural-territorial complexes of various sizes.
Zonal PTC resulting latitudinal manifestation of natural processes and phenomena azonic PTC formed as a result heterogeneity of the geological structure and relief of the territory.
Ukraine within the three major azonic PTC - physiographic countries (the East Carpathian mountain range and the Crimean mountains) on its plains are three large zonal PTC - natural areas (forest, forest-steppe and steppe).
Less than one physico-geographical zone zoning of Ukraine are natural subbandAnd azonic - Geographical land area and areas.
Questions and tasks.
1. Name the system of units of physical-geographical zoning of Ukraine.
2. What is the difference of zonal PTC azonic?
3. Within that large zonal PTC is Ukraine?
4. How great azonic PTC distinguish within Ukraine?
5 *. Compare units of natural zoning of Ukraine within the forest, steppe and steppe areas (number, size, type).