Topic 9. Soils and land resources
§ 26. Soils of Ukraine
1. Remember, the soil differs from the rocks.
2. What are the soil of the highest fertility?
From Ukraine's history course you already know about one of the oldest cultures in Europe cultivation of land - farmer Trypillya culture, archaeologists at the open with. Tripoli (Kiev). Already in IV - The third millennium BCE. our ancestors settled in the lands of Right Bank Ukraine and grew up on them bread. Since agriculture, including farming became the core lifestyle old Ukrainian. Ukrainian peasant always treated respectfully land breastfeeding, loved and cherished her. Over the centuries it is viddyachuvala him bountiful harvest. When the early nineteenth century. under cultivation fell vast expanses of steppe black earth of Ukraine, she became the first “granary” Europe.
Grown yields - the result of teamwork and human and nature. Important natural success factor has always been farming soil. For the territory of Ukraine characterized by diverse soil.
Terms of soil. Soils formed in Ukraine result of interaction between different soil factors - parent rocks, natural waters, climate, topography, vegetation, of animals and microorganisms, the economic impact of man.
Parent breeds (Background) is determined mineral composition, physical and chemical properties of soil. In Ukraine, such species are quaternary sediments - mostly sand and loess. They are to soil fall aerosol particles - clay and sand, and in mountainous areas added more debris - gravel and crushed stone.
ClimateIncluding the ratio of heat and moisture affects the formation of different types of soil. Thus, in conditions of excessive waterlogged soil moisture is formed, which can be formed peaty layer and clay - gray stain zakysnyh iron compounds. Insufficient moisture causes the formation of saline soils: a place to surface moisture quickly evaporates, rises from the depths of water with dissolved salt. Impact climate on soil formation is also carried through vegetation. In warm and damp climates formed enough lush grass vegetation, after which the mortality of many forms of humus (humus). So to many herbaceous vegetation formed fertile soils. Conversely, in excessive dryness of the climate formed loose vegetation, humus produced little, and therefore will be less fertile soils or poor.
AnimalsLiving in the soil (earthworms, moles), fluff it crushed and the remains of plants. Ultimately makes the remains of dead plants and animals on humus microorganisms (Various bacteria). They splitting the organic remains of minerals and chemical elements - Nitrogen, calcium, potassium, carbon, phosphorus, Sulfur and others. Only in this manner they can once again acquire the plant. In addition, humus and calcium sticking together another solid mineral particles in soil lumps of different sizes, among which water penetrates the soil and air.
Human activities can improve soil fertility in terms of scientifically grounded its soil or its reduction as a result of unsustainable management. Important to improve soil quality is of organic and mineral fertilizers.
The process of soil formation is very slowly. In temperate middle latitudes, where the Ukraine, fertile soil layer thickness 0,5 - 2 cm formed about 100 years. Fully formed the same ground has a capacity of 1 - 2 m and consists of several layers - the horizon. In terms of soil (soil profile) shows its layered structure.
Probably you will not find another animal in the world that has played such a large role in nature. Army of underground pitmen 1 ha of soil is 130 thousand individuals total weight 400 kg. During the year they turn over more than 30 tons of earth.
Charles Darwin, the nineteenth century.
Fig. Soil factors
Fig. Soil profile
The main types of soil plains parts. In Ukraine formed different soils. Their distribution on the flat part is subordinated to the law pulse zoning (soil vary from north to south).
Sod-podzol soils distributed mainly on Still alive. They were formed in conditions of excessive moisture in pine and mixed forests. Parent rock for them to serve as water-ice sandy sediments. These small soil humus content (up to 1,5%), clearly expressed by the so-called podzolic horizon from which nutrients are washed away deep down. Therefore they have low fertility.
Gray forest soils common in the southern part of Polesie, the west and the Right Bank of Ukraine under wide-forest areas. They formed in loamy soils in sufficient moisture. The content of humus in them are also small - 3%, so their Natural fertility is low.
Black soil formed on lesah in insufficient moisture in the steppe vegetation. Great humus content (8 - 15%) and granular structure and Clotted make them not only in the most fertile Ukraine, but in the world. Humus layer of the chernozem has considerable power - from 40 cm to 1 m or more. These soils, which cover nearly 65% of Ukraine is its national wealth. In Ukraine, fifth part of all black world. Different different parts of the country spread black subtypes: the forest - black ashed and typical, North of the steppe - ordinary black, in southern steppe - Southern black. A variety of subtypes and their properties caused by different zvolozhenistyu territory.
In the dry steppe areas in low moisture and poor vegetation appeared chestnut soil. They have little humus content - 3%, but powerful enough humus - 55 cm For obtain high yields of crops, these soils require additional moisture.
Besides the main zonal types of soils on the flat part of Ukraine on Polesie formed Swamp йpeat-swamp, and in river valleys - meadow йmeadow marsh. In the forest-steppe and some small spots distributed salt - Marginal soils, which traced the horizon of high content of salts. In the southern plains were formed Salt Flat-Barren soil with high salt content across its width. For growing plants such soils require irrigation and gypsuming. Because of intensive salt water flushing in the closed reduction of relief turn on maltIn which the salt layer disappears, but there are clay horizons.
Working with map
1. Name sequentially from north to south soils, formed on the flat part of Ukraine.
2. What are the most common soils in Ukraine?
3. What types of soils have latitudinal distribution?
4. Check that soil area covered your area.
Soils mountain. The mountains were formed as different types of soils that change according to law poyasnosti altitude - from the bottom to the top.
В Ukrainian Carpathians the largest areas are brown. In Prykarpattya and at the foot of Transcarpathia common varieties brownsoil-podzolic soils. In the woods to a height of almost 1500 m above sea level formed a thin, schebenysti brown mountain-forest soils. Above, on the treeless hills, meadows and other mountain tops common mountain-meadow soils.
У Crimean mountains in foothill areas and on the northern slopes to a height of 450 m distributed mountain-steppe soils - sod-carbonate та gray. Formed under shrub and herbaceous vegetation. Major soils of Mountain Crimea - as storm mountain-forestThat extended to a height of 850 m under beech, oak and mixed forests. In jajlah of meadow vegetation dominated mountain meadow chornozemovydni soils. On Southern Crimea, Where the climate is sub-tropical, with sufficient moistening prevail brown and red-brown soils. They are quite fertile: humus content is 4%.
The most fertile soils are not only in Ukraine but the world is black. Humus layer, which can reach 120 cm! Their fertility once said: "The Earth as good, that plant thill, then grow tarantas.
Land resources. Earth used or can be used by man for its needs, create land resources country. All land in Ukraine, in fact, are such states. They are used in agriculture and forestry, they erected residential buildings and industrial facilities, transport routes are built. Part of land covered natural and artificial reservoirs, which are used in commercial purposes.
Fig. The stock of land Ukraine
About 70% of the land resources of Ukraine - is farmland, most of which concentrated in the fertile soils and very under cultivation. Arable land (or arable land) is 4 / 5 of the total area of agricultural land - is one of the highest in the world. Provision of per capita farmland of the country exceeds world and European indexes almost 2,5 times. The highest share of arable land steppe zone - about 90%. This allows you to develop a variety of industry agriculture. However, such high plowed land often leads to increased water and wind erosion soil - demolition fertile layer. The resulting ravines and beams, dust storms occur. Great cause bad damage to soil tillage, irrigation and unsystematic fertilization. Consequently, the soils are destroyed and depleted, reduced their fertility.
For keeping soil in good condition should take various measures: plant trees and shrubs on the slopes of ravines, to stop their growth, the slopes of hills plow across to prevent flushing the soil surface waters, as irrigate land proved scientifically to make fertilizers.
Fig. Soil Fertility
The largest ravine in Ukraine, 8 km long and 70 meters deep - Smelyansky that appeared near the town of Kanev (Cherkasy region).
Soil factors is the parent species, water, climate, topography, vegetation, animals and microorganisms activity, Economic impact of man.
On the lower part of Ukraine had formed such Main soil types: sod-podzol, gray forest, black (ashed, common, ordinary, south), chestnut, meadow, marsh, salt, saline, malt.
On the lower part of Ukraine distribution of soil subordinate pulse zoning law, and in the mountains - EL poyasnosti.
Ukraine has a very large land resources, but soils require management and integrated activities with their protection.
Questions and Tasks
1. Explain the factors which influenced formed soil.
2. Describe sod-podzol soils and soils. How they differ?
3. What are the patterns of distribution of soil flat part of Ukraine and in the mountains? Explain the main reasons distribution.
4. What steps should be taken to preserve soil fertility?
5 *. Consider what is meant by: "The ground itself udobryuye.
Practical work number 5
1. Analyze the distribution of soil in Ukraine: a) write the title sequence of soils that vary from north to south plains, b) consistently indicate names of soils ranging from the foot to the top of the Ukrainian Carpathians and Crimean mountains.
2. Write to the conclusion that subordinate to the laws of distribution of soils in Ukraine.