§ 24. Lakes, ponds and artificial channels
1. Remember that there are origin lake basin.
2. What to include artificial reservoirs?
Lake. Lake called the Blue pearls, blue eyes of the Earth. The Ukraine has about 20 thousand, but most of them is a small lake in the river valleys. Only 40 reservoirs have an area of 10 km2And shallow ones. Lake is located on the territory of Ukraine unevenly. The largest ones are located in the Lower Danube to the Black and Azov Seas, and in Polesie Carpathians. Extremely few of them in the forest-steppe and steppe belts. Most lakes fresh, salt is only a few dozen lakes in southern Ukraine.
Lake of the country different in origin depression. Karst lake appeared at dissolution of rocks water. Such origins have Shatsky LakesThat in Volhynia. Altogether, these are about thirty lakes, most are Svitiazke. It is called a geological wonder: being among the Cretaceous rocks, which can dissolve, the lake remains affluent. This is due to supply not only atmospheric but also pressurized groundwater. Water in the lake is extremely soft and transparent. Channel Svitiazke lake connects to the Pulemetske and Luke. Overall Shatsky Lakes sewage are in the Western Bug basin. Small karst Lake is in Polesie, the Crimean Mountains, the Carpathians, the tail (where they are called “windows”).
Lake Name SvitiazkeAccording to one version translated from Lithuanian means light, white, after another - comes from the ancient Slavic word "howl", ie the name associated with configuration of the lake - winding, distorting.
Ice lake appeared in former days lodges mountain glaciers and occur on slopes Montenegrin array in the Carpathians. It Lake Brebeneskul, Maricheika, Nesamovyte. Zahatni Lakearising from the barrage of water flow or landslide landslip. That is in Carpathian, the upperTereblya formed lake Synevyr. From all sides it is surrounded by mountains, pines grown with age, firs, beeches. The lake is small, but quite deep (24 m). In Transcarpathia There are several volcanic lakes, Formed after filling with water volcanic craters (Blue, Lipovetskoe).
Title Synevyr deduce from the words blue and whirlpool – profound, deep pit. Crystal clear water in the lake has a blue tint. for which the people call it "Sea Eye"
Most mountain lake in Ukraine Brebeneskul, lying on the absolute height of 1801 m the same name near the top of the Ukrainian Carpathians.
Fig. National parkSynevyr" lake Synevyr
Floodplain lake і Lake-old women - results of the rivers. Floodplain lake arise on the floodplain of the river due to the separation of a sleeve or the Gulf of mainstream river sediments. Floodplain Lake Yalpug, Kugurlui, Cahul is the largest freshwater lakes Ukraine. They were formed because of flooding of the Danube floodplain tributaries, which are separated from the main river sand embankments or dams. Straits of these lakes are connected to the Danube and its waters feed during major floods. Lake-old women - A lake in the old “abandoned” river bed. Usually small in area, they are common in river valleys plain part of Ukraine - in the floodplains of the Dnieper, the Desna, Sula, Psla, Seversky Donets. However, in some places extended and reduced floodplain river may overflow large areas (Lake Lyub'yazand Nobel on the river Pripyat).
На flat sea coasts common lakes formed by the separation of former sea bays. They separated by narrow and low pour sand pebbles, shells or gravel alluvial and coastal sea waves trends. These lakes are relatively large, but shallow. Most of them are estuary lakes, Ie the former estuaries, transformed into a lake. Estuaries - elongated (20 - 40 km) bays, formed by the sea flooding the valleys of the rivers near their mouths. The largest lakes, estuaries - Dniester і Milky - Unleavened There are flowing into the Black and Azov seas. There are lakes closed estuary and salt: Sasyk-Kunduk, Shahany, Hadzhybeyskyy, Tylihulsk estuaries. They stretch for tens of kilometers, but shallow - depth does not exceed 3 meters, so water them warmed up to 300S. Estuaries are often curative mud. The famous therapeutic mud, based on which are numerous resorts, Kuialnyk estuary.
Fig. Dniester Liman
Along the banks of the steppe region of Crimea is separated pour Gulf, which formed as a result of flooding Sea of dry valleys and gorges. A plot pour Maritime Water continues to penetrate into the lake and fed them to salts. These lakes are called Sivash. They are as shallow, high salinity and large deposits Sludge treatment - curative mud. The largest lakes-Sivash - Donuzlav іSasyk-Sivash, Which is located near the resort city of Evpatoria. Mud Saki Lake unique in the world for its composition and therapeutic effects on human body. Used for healing people salty estuaries and mud.
Sometimes called the Lake of the Azov Sea Sivash. It almost completely separated from the sandy sea and oblique Arabatsky Arrow connected with him only a narrow strait in the north. Salinity in the bay-lake over 220 ‰. His salt - a valuable raw materials.
Large fresh water lakes are a source of Ukraine public water supply used for irrigation, they throw the fish. The picturesque lake in Polesskiye and attractive destinations for many tourists and tourists.
Names of lakes Sasyk and Sivashtranslated from Turkic languages almost equally - Lake, which is rotten smelland Gnyle lake.
Ukraine is the deepest lake Svitiazke, the average whose depth is 7 m, and the maximum - 58.4 m. Water is so pure and clear, and that the depth 8 m see the bottom.
The largest fresh water lakes in Ukraine Yalpug (149 km2), The largest freshwater estuary - Dniester (360 km2).
Artificial reservoirs. In nature, Ukraine has many artificial water bodies - ponds and reservoirs. BettingThat there almost 29 thousand, are barred dams of small rivers filled with water beams. They are in all regions of Ukraine and used for pisciculture and recreation people.
Reservoirs - A large artificial lake, created to accumulate water and its subsequent use and regulation of river discharge during the year. The biggest of them built on the Dnieper - Kiev, Kanevsky, Kremenchug, Dneprodzerzhinskoe, Dnipro, Kakhovske. They form cascade - Group, hosted the river ledges. Creation Dnieper lasted almost half a century with 20 years of the twentieth century. and was associated using water of the Dnieper to generate electricity. First Dnipro reservoir created primarily for improve navigation on the Dnieper rapids and the area needs for hydroelectric power stations and Kakhovske was intended primarily to provide irrigation of arid steppe areas.
Powerful HPS is a companion Dnistrovsoho Reservoir on the same river. Large artificial water reservoirs is also the Seversky Donets (Pecheniz'ke reservoir) Forest (Chervonooskolske), Southern Bug (Ladyzhyns'ke) And other rivers. They were created by the TPP and NPP industrial centers and large cities, their water zroshuyuyuta lot of dry land. However, with reservoirs and a number of related negative phenomena. Their water so badly eroding banks, they retreat each year for tens of meters. To prevent this exercise Consolidation concrete reservoirs plates. Widespread negative phenomenon is the summer bloom of water - strong propagation of small algae, which absorb at the same time with a large water oxygen. This in turn leads to mass death of fish. For prevention of breeding and tolstolobik grass carp - fish that eat phytoplankton, reed and sedge.
The largest reservoir in Ukraine Kremenchug area of 2 252 km2, The deepest - Dnipro depth 54 m.
Channels. To ensure the redistribution of water the territory of the economy needs to create an artificial river - Channels. They supply water for major industrial areas and cities, water the earth and osushuyut.
Longest in Ukraine Pivnichnokrymskyy channel. It is the largest and volume of water transported. Canal stretches from Kakhovskoe reservoir through Perekops'kyi isthmus to the city of Kerch. Most part of the channel is in line with earth, causing considerable seepage deeper water. Pivnichnokrymskyy channel operates seasonally: it begins filling in March and in November the water supply stops. From it in different directions waste irrigation channels that form a whole system (most of them are Krasnoznamenskaya).
У Kahovskom Irrigation channeland that so well away from Kakhovskoe reservoir, water is kept throughout year. Throughout its length of movement of water by gravity, without pump stations. To prevent seepage of water deep down in its entire channel soil covered with a film screen. In recent years, water intake in all channels significantly decreased.
Water supply for industrial areas and cities is Channels Dnipro - Donbas Seversky Donets - Donbas Sky - Krivoy Rog. In Polissya in Western Ukraine created a dense network of narrow drainage channels and ditches that the river discharged water from excessively wet areas.
The longest canal in Ukraine - Pivnichnokrymskyy (400 km). Its synthetic track has a width of 115 meters and a depth of 6 m.
Artificial lakes and rivers
Artificial lakes are flooded by career, which halted mining operations. These are Solotvyns'ka Salt Lake Yavoriv Lake on the spot sulfur quarry pond in granite quarries on the Ukrainian Shield. Many small on some sections of rivers flow into the excavated human bed. Such drainage natural watercourses was carried out in Ukraine in the twentieth century. for straightening rivers and streams draining their flood plain.
In Ukraine there are lakes of karst, glacial, obstruction, volcanic, estuary, flood and lake-origin old women.
The largest lakes in Ukraine Milk and Dniester estuaries Sasyk (Kunduk) Yalpug, the deepest - Svitiazke, Synevyr.
Dnieper form Kiev, Kanevsky, Kremenchug, Dneprodzerzhinskoe, Dnipro, Kakhovske reservoir.
The major channels in Ukraine is Pivnichnokrymskyy, TL, Dnipro-Donbass.
Questions and Tasks
1. Which lake in origin depressions are common in the Ukrainian Carpathians?
2. Tell us about the formation of estuary lakes. Give examples of such lakes in Ukraine.
3. Why the size and shape of the flood Lakes often change?
4. For what purpose are created Reservoir? On what rivers they created?
5. What is the role of channels? Tell you about known channels.
6. What are the artificial lakes and ponds is in your area?
7 *. What lake can be called "Ukrainian Baykal. Tell him about the origin of the lake basin.
Practical work 4 (Continued)
On contour map sign the names of the largest lakes, reservoirs and canals, name are mentioned in paragraph textbook.