Topic 8. Inland waters
As you know, the internal waters of our state - that all land and waters of coastal marine waters within state borders of Ukraine. The internal waters of land belonging to those located on its surface (surface water) and in the ground (underground water). Surface water in Ukraine are concentrated in rivers, lakes, channels and artificial water bodies (ponds, reservoirs), wetlands. The largest volume of surface water contained in rivers.
§ 22. Living and working rivers
1. Remember that power should River.
2. How different nature of flow plains and rivers?
QUANTITY And the length of rivers. It looks like a thick blue lace rivers and streams obplitayut our earth, gathering water from all over and carrying it to the seas. In Ukraine, over 63 thousand natural watercourses. Among them most streams (length of less than 10 km) and small rivers (length 100 km). Middle River (from 100 to 500 km) - A little more than a hundred, and large (over 500 km long) - only 14.
Distribution of rivers in the country depends, primarily on the relief and climate. The greatest density of river network in Ukrainian Carpathians and Crimean mountainsAnd the lowest - at Black Sea Lowland. In the most arid part of it - between the Dnieper and the Gulf Sivash - there are no permanent watercourses, and produced only temporary during melting snow or torrential rain.
The longest river of Ukraine and the third longest in Europe (after Volga and Danube) - Sky length of 2201 km (Length in Ukraine - 981 km).
PLAIN AND rafting. Direction and speed the flow of rivers defines relief. These attributes are divided into lowland rivers and mountains. Most of the rivers of Ukraine are plain, Including the longest - Dnipro and Southern Bug and its tributaries, within their river systems. MountainThere are some rivers of the Ukrainian Carpathians and small rivers of the Southern coast of Crimea. Most rivers that originate in the Carpathians and the northern slopes of the Main Owing to the Crimean mountains are Mountain-Plains (Dniester, Tisza, Prut and their tributaries, Salgyr et al.).
Relief and determines the fall and Tilting rivers. Fall River called the difference between the heights of its source and mouth. Inclined River - this ratio falling to its length. For example, leakage by Sula, which has a length of 363 km, located at an altitude of 155 m above sea level, but the mouth (the confluence of the Dnieper) - at a height of 80 m. Thus, it fall is: 155 - 80 = 75 m, GRADE and the average is: 75 m : 363 km = 21 cm / km. Sloping river shows how many feet or inches in average “falls” river for each kilometer of its length. Sula has a slight fall and the elderly, because of its slow flow. These figures are typical for lowland rivers. In return Mountain Riverhave large quantities of falling and sloping, so they flow fast and turbulent. Compare: the fall of the Carpathian р. Limnytsyais 1 185 m, GRADE and 9,7 m / km.
Fig. Mountain River in the Carpathians
POWER RIVERS AND CONDITIONS. Climate conditions of the territory of Ukraine determine water flow in river systems, ie their nutrition. In Ukraine, the river have mixed type of power. The main part of it falls on precipitation (snow and rain): their river replenished mainly in spring and summer. In all the rivers of the plains in the country's dominant power snow and the mountain - rain. Underground power water is not more than 20% and dominates the winter. The steppe zone in the summer some small rivers dry up.
River view - It features its behavior during year (changing the level and amount of water during freezing, etc.). The water level in then the river rises, then falls depending on seasonal supplies. Flood - Long rise water level, which is repeated from year to year in the same season - in the rivers plain part of Ukraine reached during the spring snow melt. It lasts 10 days in the minor rivers in six weeks - at large. The water for long River flood plain during floods. Flooding - Significant and rapid rise water in the river, which occurs in different seasons due to a sudden thaw or heavy rains. Floods during occurring in the year Carpathians, Carpathians and Transcarpathian region. River floodplain there are narrow, so the water level in are rapidly rising. In the mountain rivers of the Crimea floods characteristic mostly in spring and winter. On the plains of rivers in Ukraine flooding are rare. Middle of summer - The lowest water level in rivers - is mostly with summer drought and frosty winter.
In winter river in Ukraine are covered with ice. Freezing(Solid ice cover) is installed in December and usually lasts 2 - 3 months. In the mountain rivers stable ice cover is formed by rapid flow.
Power and regime of rivers affect their flow. River flow - A volume of water flowing through the cross section of the river over a period of time (eg annually). The largest annual runoff have Danube, Dnieper, Dniester. Among small and average annual runoff of rivers larger rivers in the north and west of the country where excessive and adequate hydration. Much less he rivers that collect water in areas with insufficient moistening (south).
Naybahatovodnishoyu River Danube in Ukraine, the annual runoff is about 123 km3, Which is twice more than in Dnieper.
OF THE RIVER. Rivers do a great job: destroy (blur and wash) rocks carry particles of rocks and lay them in the form of sediment along the riverbed or in the mouth. The result of their continuous operation is the formation of river valleys and deltas.
The greater GRADE river, the more destructive work it performs. The process of destruction of river rocks called river erosion. In the upper reaches, where more inclined and faster flow, the river is mainly fighter in the Earth's surface, deepening its valley. In the middle part and Lowlands, where inclined and velocity of the river decreases, dominant delay brought rocks pidmyvannya coast erosion and the slopes of the valley. Because of This river valley is expanding. The river begins to "wander" across the valley, meander, forming petlepodibni curves - meanders. Water pidmyvaye much bluff and at shallow sediment deposited. Of these formed Beaches - Flat alluvial coast. After a long pidmyvannya banks of rivers curves becoming steeper, and near their base jumper narrowed. During floods or flood water can dilute the jumper and the river rectified, a new track. A bend of the old river bed will Staritsa - Lake semilunar form, which gradually turn into a swamp as a result zarostannya.
As a result of erosion produced terraces - sloping areas with slopes, ledges. They are remnants of the former valley bottoms that were when the river flowed at a higher level. The rivers of Ukraine are to 7 terraces, them most - in the valley of the Dniester and its tributaries - 11.
They have a wide flowing river (sometimes up to several kilometers) of river valleys mostly gentle slopes. Bed in these winding, of meanders, sleeves, ducts, islands, many floodplains in bayou. For rivers characterized by mostly narrow, deep valley with steep slopes. Their bed slabozvyvysti, Rocks, rapids and waterfalls. In some sections of the river can form canyon - Narrow deep valley with nearly vertical slopes and narrow bottom. Canyons are formed in mountainous areas of the Crimea and the Carpathians and the higher elevations, which were tectonic raising. For example, a left tributary canyons are Dniester - CanyonThat pour over Podolia Upland.
Fig. Canyon on the river canyon in Kamenetz-Podolsk
As a result of the devastating flood has not only liquid (water), but solid flow.Called him all the solid material which is tolerated in the river and hung dissolved form. From the number of substances contained in 1 m3water depends on water turbidity. The highest values of solid flow and turbidity are mountain rivers of the Ukrainian Carpathians and Crimea, as well as those crossing the hills and forest-steppe. The smallest solid flow in rivers forest zone. Steady flow gradually deposited as sediment below Drift and taken out the major rivers in the sea or lake. He piled up on the bottom or postponed in the mouths of rivers in the form of islands created by delta. Delta are the largest river Ukraine - Danube and Dnepr.
Rivers in Ukraine is the main source of hydro power and water for the population and economy, transport links. Their banks - great vacation spots.
Effects of water (especially swimming) such as important as the influence of wind. Gliding digs a channel of water going into them, deepens and widens them. How much water and has been successful - everyone knows that looks at the beam-vodoryyi. They are very much all over Ukraine.
Stephen Rudnitsky, 1917
Ukraine's largest estuary and one of the largest in Europe forms the Danube. Its area is 5640 km2. Annually ejecting the delta into the Black Sea at 30 m. She cut numerous straits, covered lakes, overgrown with reeds. This - the Danube flowing.
Ukraine is the deepest in the Grand Canyon Crimea, depth 230 - 320 m and length of 3 km, which sometimes narrows to 3 pm Located canyon, down a river Auzun-Uzen, on the northern slope Ai-Petri jajly.
Fig. Working River
Fig. Scheme of the river valley
Fall River - is the difference between absolute heights of her brain and mouth. Sloping river - is the drop to its length.
Annual river flows - a volume of water flowing through the cross-section of the river by year.
River erosion - is the destruction process of the river rocks.
Solid flow - is suspended and dissolved solids which is transferred river.
Questions and Tasks
1. Tell us how dependent nature of river flow and formation of the valley of relief.
2. Define GRADE Dnieper in Ukraine, if known that the Belarusian-Ukrainian border its channel is at an altitude of 108 m above Sea.
3. What power have rivers of Ukraine?
4. What is the impact power mode and the rivers in their annual runoff?
5. What job do the river?
6 *. To characterize the river flow use rate of water flow in the river - the volume of water flowing through cross the river for 1 sec. It is calculated by the formula: Q = S∙v, where Q - Water consumption (in m3/с), S - Cross-sectional area of the river (in m2), v - Velocity of flow of the river (in m/c). Calculate the flow in River, if the cross section of the bed looks like a trapezoid, the width of the water surface is 56 m, bottom width 34 m, average depth - 2,5 m, and velocity - 0,4 m/с.