§ 20. Main indicators of climate and seasons
1. Remember that laws exist in the distribution of air temperatures.
2. What factors affect the distribution rain?
Temperature. Average annual and monthly average air temperature depends on the amount of solar radiation that receiving surface, and seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation. Temperature Changes air for a year almost coincide with annual revenues of solar radiation. Consequently, the average temperature change for all the months of latitude, increasing from north to south. Especially this pattern clearly shows the Left and southern Ukraine. Instead, under the influence of marine air masses, coming from the Atlantic and gradually transformed, moving east average monthly air temperature change and to growth of longitude. It characteristic, especially for right-bank Ukraine, where the influence of Western Transfer of the largest air. In mountainous regions the air temperature slightly reduced compared to surrounding areas. Features temperature conditions in Ukraine at the climate maps illustrating isotherms January and July - coldest and warmest months.
Average temperatures January reduced from -1 ° C in the Crimean plains to -8 ° C in the far north of Ukraine and from -4 ° C in west to -8 ° C in the far east. Warmest winter - along south-western and southern coast of Crimea, where the average January temperatures positive and reaches 4 ° C. January is the coldest, but the northern and eastern areas in the Carpathians (-8 ° C).
Fig. Temperature (January)
Working with map
1. In which areas of Ukraine in January isotherm is the lowest?
2. What areas of Ukraine covers isotherm in January to the highest temperatures?
3. What are the average January temperatures in the central part of Ukraine?
4. What are the typical January temperatures for your area?
Average temperature July increase of 18 ° C in the north, Ukraine to 23 ° C in the south and 17 ° C in the west to 21 ° C in east. In the Crimean mountains The July average temperature falls to 16 ° C, and Ukrainian Carpathians (altitude 1000 m) - 14 ° C.
Fig. Temperature (July)
Working with map
1. In which areas of Ukraine on July isotherm is the highest temperature?
2. What areas of Ukraine covers isotherm in July with the lowest temperatures?
3. What are the average July temperature in the central part of Ukraine?
4. What are the typical temperature of July for your area?
The highest temperature registered in Ukraine, is 42 ° C. It was recorded in the Crimea.
Lowest Temperature, registered in Ukraine, is -42 ° C. She observed in the far east in Lugansk.
Rainfall. Isolines, that at the climate map of Ukraine reflect average annual rainfall, have roughly the same direction reach, and as isotherms. Average annual rainfall at in Ukraine decreased from 650 - 550 mm in the north to 450 - 350 mm Black and Azov coast and in northern Crimea and from 750 - 700 mm in the west to 500 - 450 mm in the east. The highest rainfall for the year falls in the mountains - in the highlands Carpathian Mountains (over 1 500 mm) and the mountainous Crimea (1200 mm). The South Coast of Crimea, the average annual rainfall is about the same as as in Transcarpathia - 600 - 650 mm.
Main rainfall (80%) in Ukraine falls as rain, others - as snow. Throughout most precipitation falls in summer, and only in the South Crimea - the winter (Appendix 8).
The highest rainfall recorded in Ukraine Carpathians in Montenegro - 2 361 mm per year, the lowest - on the coast Karkinit Bay and Soils - Less than 300 mm per year.
Fig. Distribution of precipitation
Working with map
1. What amount of rainfall in northern regions of Ukraine?
2. How changes in rainfall middle part of Ukraine in the direction from west to east?
3. What amount of rainfall in southern regions of Ukraine?
4. Where in Ukraine falls maximum precipitation?
5. What gets rainfall area of your field?
Seasons. We become accustomed certain rhythmic changes in the surrounding nature, which repeated from year to year. We call them seasons. Everyone is familiar natural signs of spring, summer, autumn, winter. We could easily distinguish these seasons in environment, the photos or pictures. Seasons affect our business activities, planning of working time and rest, life and health.
To organize your life and work we use these calendar, linking, say, the beginning of spring until 1 March, and summer - By 1 June. However, real changes in the nature does not coincide with calendar out of season. In astronomy seasons - A intervals between days Equinox and Solstice: Astronomical spring lasts from vernal equinox (March 21) to the summer solstice (22 June), summer - from summer solstice to the autumnal equinox (September 23), etc. But climatologists have linked the onset of the seasons go on dates averaging air temperature 0° C and 15 ° C. So spring comes a climate where the average day temperature increasing from 0 ° C to 15 ° C, summer - with temperatures over 15 ° C autumn - when the temperature decreased from 15 ° C to 0 ° C, and winter - from daily temperatures below 0 ° C.
In Ukraine, the seasons are expressed quite clearly. Springoccurs earliest on the southern coast of Crimea - the end of February, instead of northeast of the country - only in late March. For early spring characteristic unstable weather: there are sharp cooling, freezing observed in May, sometimes snow falls. The steppe zone there are dust storms. Spring begins Thunderstorms and heavy rain.
Summer - Warm and nayvolohisha (except Southern coast of Crimea) season. In the south it occurs early, and north - in late May and ends in about early September. In the Ukrainian Carpathians its duration is much shorter. Maximum precipitation falls for June - July, often hrymlyat thunderstorms poured rain, hail occasionally fall. In bezdoschovi periods, especially in the southern region, there are droughts, dust storms and drought.
Early fall usually dominates dry, sunny weather. Often under the influence of warm tropical air masses is "Indian Summer", when the temperature exceeds 20 ° C. Invasion of cold Arctic weight in September - October, causing freezing. In the second half of autumn due to intensification of cyclones dominated overcast with rain and fog.
Winter comes the end of November - on early December (in Transcarpathia - in mid-December). This is the coolest time of year, which the peculiar frosty weather with falling snow and ice installation cover. Overall, however, Ukrainian winters relatively mild, often thaw. But sometimes there are storms, ice, fog, in the mountains - snow avalanche. On Southern Crimea, long winter season does not happen, not snow established, although snow falls each year.
Climate resources. Solar radiation, moisture comes from rainfall, wind is an environmental resources. They belong to inexhaustible natural resources, multi-purpose. Among them distinguish energy, agro-climatic and recreation resources.
Energy climatic resources (Solar and wind) in Ukraine is quite significant and widespread throughout its territory. However, for industrial Solar electricity is expedient to use South Coast of Crimea and the steppes of the Ukraine, and wind - in the mountains areas on the coasts of seas and reservoirs and open steppe areas. Now use of energy resources in Ukraine climatic insignificant: there is a single experimental solar power in the Crimea and several small wind.
Most windy place in Ukraine - Ai-Petri Yayla in Crimean mountains. There's an average of 77 days per year with strong winds blowing speeds over 15 m / sec.
Agroclimatic Resources include warm air and soil and water supplies needed for growing crops. Important in this respect is the period of stable average daily temperature air, higher than 10 ° C, ie a period of intensive crops vegetation. Throughout in Ukraine length of this period is sufficient for growing cultural temperate plants, it is much longer in Transcarpathia and longest - of Southern Crimea, where agro-climatic Resources possible to grow subtropical culture.
Fig. Agroclimatic zoning
Damping characteristic area coefficient moistening - The ratio of annual rainfall to vyparovuvanosti (number moisture can evaporate under these temperature conditions) over the same period. If annual rainfall is approximately equal vyparovuvanosti, the coefficient moisture is about 1. This consider sufficient moisture. If the rate of hydration greater than 1, is excessive moisture, and if less than 1 - insufficient. In the north and west Ukraine (Polesie) Or excessive moisture adequate. There was large held areas of land reclamation. Further east cock and spreads slightly Arid and Arid Zone. Black Sea Lowland and flat Crimeaare in a very arid zone (moisture ratio less than 0.55), where for obtaining good yields of crops needed artificial irrigated lands.
Recreational climatic resources used to treat and Rest of people. Most favorable conditions are formed on the shores of seas, rivers, reservoirs and lakes in mountainous areas and forests. It combines fresh air, higher humidity, higher wind speed and the kind of regime air temperature. Recreational climatic resources are used on throughout Ukraine. For this purpose sanatoriums, rest homes, children's camps.
Monthly average temperature in Ukraine depend on the amount of solar radiation received by the surface, and circulation atmosphere (especially the western transfer of air).
Average January temperatures in Ukraine change from -8 ° C (in the northern, eastern and Carpathians) to -1 ° C (at south) and 4 ° C (on the southern coast of Crimea).
Average temperature July vary from 17 ° C (West) and 15 ° C (in mountainous areas) to 23 ° C (south).
Average annual rainfall in Ukraine varies from 1 500 - 1 000 mm (in mountainous areas) and 750 - 700 mm (West) to 450 - 350 mm (South).
In Ukraine distinct seasons - spring, summer, Fall, Winter.
Ukraine has vast environmental resources - energy, agroclimatic, recreation.
Questions and Tasks
1. Why the average temperatures of January and July changes in Ukraine as from north to south and from west to east?
2. Describe climate in your area main climatic factors.
3. Tell us about the seasons in your area using their own observations.
4. How can I use energy climate resources?
5. How does the coefficient of moisture Ukraine?
6. What is called climate recreational resources? How they are used in our country?
7 *. Calculate the coefficient for moisture Rivne and Dnipropetrovsk, where annual precipitation in these is respectively 700 mm and 500 mm, the average vyparovuvanist - 650 mm (sharp) and 800 mm (in Dnepropetrovsk). Set a wetting characteristic of the territory of each city.