§ 17. Ore minerals
1. Remember that minerals belong to the ore.
2. What are the origin of ore minerals?
In the depths of Ukraine occurring minerals and rocks that containing different metals - from aluminum and iron, which is most common in Earth's crust, to rare items that occur only occasionally or in scattered small quantities of contaminants to other minerals. Inventories of some ores no industrial value. As for stocks iron, manganese, titanium and uranium ore Ukraine ranks first among European countries, with the mercury ore reserves Secondly (after Spain). Extraction of these useful deposits made in large quantities, our government ensures their needs and sells them to other countries.
Most of the ore deposits associated with the strata Ukrainian Shield, and ancient (Donetsk) and young (Carpathian) orogen.
Ores of ferrous metals. Ukraine is a unique country in the world for stocks and placing deposits of iron and manganese ores, smelted from which black metals (iron, steel). Extremely beneficial for the country's economy is that largest fields are located near these resources - within and Dnipropetrovsk neighboring regions.
Common stocks iron ore constitute more than 27 billion t. One of the largest in the world is Rig iron pool (Kryvbas). It covers a number of fields that stretched strip length over 100 km through Dnipropetrovsk, Kirovohrad and Mykolayiv region. Industrial Basin development began in XIX Art. The highest value for farms are the rich (with Fe content more than 46 %) and high-quality ore - red iron ore (hematite), which have little impurities. They produce mine way. Poor ore (glandular quartzite), which have less iron content (from 20 %) develop an open way (in career). Mining development reach depths over 1 000 of iron ore from high metal content also occur in Kremenchug (Poltava region) and Belozersky (Zaporizhia region) iron parts. They are produced as a career, so and mine way. In Kerch basin (Crimea) focused relatively poor ore. A small depth and large thickness actively promoted their development career way back to the late nineteenth Art. Currently there is no ore mined. In return perspective may be Azov iron ore district(Zaporozhye region).
Most fundamental man-made cavities and grooves in Ukraine iron ore mine and career Rog basin. In ore mines is the depth of 850 - 1500 m and in career - with a depth of 300 м.
Working with map
1. Name the iron pools and regions of Ukraine. Which one covers the largest area?
2. Where mined manganese ore?
3. In which areas of Ukraine has deposits polymetallic ores?
4. Where deposits are deposited titanium ore?
Fig. In Dnepropetrovsk recovered to 80% iron ore Ukraine
Stocks manganese ore in Ukraine is more than 2,5 billion Focused so they Nikopol manganese ore Basin - One of the world: the prey it's the first and second in reserves (after South Africa). Since the end XIX Art. ore is open and ways to mine in the western part of the basin - Nikopol field (Dnipropetrovsk). In return Velykotokmatske deposit (Zaporizhia region) have not yet developed, although it explored twice ore.
In ores of ferrous metals are also Chromite ore, small deposits are found in POBUZHYA(Turkey).
Ukraine has 10 to 16% of proven world reserves of iron and 20 to 42% manganese.
Non-ferrous metal ores. Put titanium ores concentrated within the Ukrainian shield. Top the deposits - Irshansk (Zhytomyr region) and Samotkanskoye (Dnepropetrovsk region). Titanium and its alloys are resistant to light and metals, and therefore it is necessary materials in air, rocket-and shipbuilding, manufacture of chemical reactors.
Since the end XIX Art. extracted in Ukraine mercury ore one of the largest in Europe Mykytivskomufield (Donetsk region). Ore deposits of mercury are also Transcarpathia, but their development stopped.
Ukraine has rich deposits of ores of nonferrous metals have not yet mastered. Some of them opened relatively recently, and metals stocks there are specified, others - well researched and prepared for operation. To These include deposits of polymetallic, aluminum, chromite ore, gold, molybdenum, many rare metals. Among fields polymetallic (Lead-zinc) ores the largest is Berehovo(Transcarpathian region). Put aluminum ore found in Transcarpathia, Dnipro (Vysokopolskoye deposit) And Azov. But common stocks of small commodities, so their production is not made. There are small reserves Nickel і cobalt ore in POBUZHYA (Turkey region) and Prydniprovie.
The exploration work carried out last years show that in the depths of Ukraine existing commercial reserves of gold, silver, copper, many rare and rare-earth metals. Yes gold found in Carpathian and Donetsk region, on the southern slopes of the Ukrainian shield. On It was mined in Transcarpathia Muzhievskogo field.Large stocks of native copper discovered and investigated on Volyn.
In Ukraine has deposits of ores of rare metals - zirconium, hafnium, niobium, lithium, beryllium, scandium, tantalum, yttrium, lanthanum, molybdenum, strontium. These metals and their alloys used in nuclear engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, aerospace engineering. By reserves of some deposits belong to large and even giant. Currently in Ukraine producing large amounts of zirconium and germanium, a smaller - scandium and hafnium.
Fig. Bauxite - aluminum ore
Uranium ore. Noteworthy ore minerals occupy uranium ore. They are important fuel and energy resources. In Ukraine, operated three uranium deposits, but explored more more. Most them Kirovohrad region, including Novokostiantynivska, that belongs to the world's leading stocks. Total reserves of uranium ore, for which Ukraine is among the top ten countries are able to meet the demand of domestic nuclear power for 100 years.
Iron ore, for stocks which Ukraine belongs to the leading countries in producing Krivorozhskom pool Kremenchug і Belozerskyiron parts, in the Kerch basin ore suspended.
Manganese ores by output of which Ukraine is a world leader focused in the Nikopol pool.
Nonferrous metals from ore Ukraine has considerable reserves of titanium ore and mercury, but stocks of other ores are limited or no industrial value.
Ukraine has large reserves of uranium ore, which able to provide for the long term.
Questions and Tasks
1. Name the ore minerals, the reserves that Ukraine occupies a leading place in Europe and worldwide.
2. What are tectonic structures associated most ore deposits of minerals?
3. Where in Ukraine producing iron ore? What for iron ore are considered rich, and who - poor?
4. Assess security of our country manganese ores.
5. What non-ferrous metal ore mined in Ukraine?
6 *. Describe the prospects for Ukraine for her production of traditional ore deposits and exploration for new mineral resources.