Topic 6. Mineral primary RESOURCES
Many rocks and minerals contained in the crust is minerals that due to its characteristics can effectively used in various sectors of the economy. Great value minerals are for energy, metals and chemical industries, construction. Certain types of minerals are widely used for treatment (ozokerite mineral water, mud) in science and technology (diamond, graphite, radioactive, rare and rare earth metals), home and jewelry case (expensive, semi-precious stones, precious metals). Salt and eat. Minerals as possible sources of energy or raw materials for various industries economy called mineral resources. By using their share of fuel, ore and nonmetallic (or combustible, metal and non-metallic), and hydro.
In the depths of Ukraine deposited various minerals. The riches of the subsoil caused by the proliferation of different tectonic structures that are long (several billion years) of geological time filled rocks of different origin and age. With a unique per structure formation - Ukrainian shield - most bound ore deposits and nonmetallic minerals of magmatic and metamorphic origin (iron, nickel and uranium ore, granite, basalt, labradorite, gneiss, graphite). In platform sedimentary cover rocks are concentrated, resulting from delay ruined crystalline rock shield (titanium and manganese ore, kaolin) and also due to the accumulation of loose and organic deposits in former sea bottom (limestone, chalk, limestone, clay). Before tectonic depressions deflections and confined mostly deposits of fuel and non-metallic minerals (Coal, oil, natural gas, salt, sulfur, building materials) and folded structures and their foothills suburbs are diverse in their waters the origin of mineral resources.
Among European countries and in global Ukraine scale stands out above all stocks of coal, iron, manganese, titanium and uranium ores, sulfur, salt, graphite, kaolin, wax, mineral paints, facing stones, mineral waters.
Of the 200 species known to mankind minerals it uses for their needs 120 species. In Ukraine, in 1997 explored kinds of mineral resources that focus almost 8 thousand in deposits, half of which are developing.
§ 16. Fuel minerals
1. Remember that minerals belong to the fuel.
2. What are the origin of fuel minerals?
In Ukraine there are all the main types of fuel. But by gross reserves among the largest mineral resources of coal, which Ukraine can provide a completely for several hundred years. Instead, natural gas and oil are much smaller, and supply them lack of national economy. In the depths of Ukraine is also brown coal, peat and shale oil.
Bituminous and lignite. With reserves of stone coal (over 54 billion tons), Ukraine ranks second place in Europe and seventh in the world. The main reserves are concentrated in its Donetsk Basin (Donbass), Located on the east. There is different types of coal: energy, anthracite (which has the largest calorific value), coke (which serves as fuel for steel industry). Coal Basin lies hundreds of layers. However, due to long operation (late XVIII cent.) is the most powerful and accessible coal seams are produced. Now layers occur at great depth (up to 1200 m) the small capacity (0,5 - 2 m), a large sloping angle and large hazonosnist. Because coal mining in many parts of Donbass (Mainly in Donetsk and Lugansk regions) becomes unprofitable and dangerous. Certain prospects of a Western Donbass coal (Dnipropetrovsk region).
Comparatively small reserves of coal concentrated in Lviv-Volyn BasinWhich is located at Western Ukraine on the brink of Lviv and Volyn regions. Coal there began in mid- XX Art. Coal lies at a depth of 300 - 700 m few and low layers, a higher ash content and humidity. It used mostly in western countries as energy and domestic fuel.
The deposits of brown coal are concentrated mainly in Dnieper Basin, Whose deposits are scattered in Zhitomir, Cherkassy, Kirovohrad and Dnipropetrovsk. The largest is Alexandria deposit. Coal there lies close to the surface, and therefore produced open. Its use as a fuel for power stations and the local population. Small deposits of brown coal is Transnistria, Precarpathiansand TranscarpathiaBut their development stopped.
Fig. The largest in Ukraine vuhlevantazhnyy complex, Mariupol
Working with map
1. Name the coal basins of Ukraine. Which of them has the largest area?
2. Where in Ukraine producing oil and natural gas?
3. Name oilfields Carpathian oil and gas region.
4. What Oil and gas fields is within the Dnieper-Donetsk region's oil and gas?
Oil and natural gas. In Ukraine there are over 300 oil and natural gas concentrated in four oil and gas regions in the west, east and south. However, their total reserves are relatively small.
Major oil and gas resources are concentrated in Dnieper-Donets oil-bearing regionThe active development of which started in mid- Twentieth century. Oil and associated gas discovered in Chernihiv, Sumy, and Poltava region, and natural gas - in Kharkov region. The largest oil and gas fields are Lelyakivske, Hnidyntsyvske (Chernihiv oblast), Hlynsko-Rozbyshivske (Poltava),gas - Zahidnohrestyschenske (Poltava region) Shebelinske, Yefremivskyi (Kharkiv region).
Carpathian catagenesis Regionbelongs to the oldest in Europe for assimilation: oil in Precarpathians (Borislavskoe deposit) Is still in the early nineteenth Art. and natural gas (Dashavskadeposit) - Since 1924 by Long Field Services exhausted their stocks, many of them oil and gas production stopped. The most effective is a field in Ivano-Frankivsk region: oil - Dolyns'ke, Oil - Bytkiv-Babchynske, Gas - Bohorodchanske.
У Black sea-Crimean regioninvestigated industrial field gas – Dzhankois'ka, Hlibivske (Crimea), oil - on the Kerch Peninsula and southern Odessa region. Highly valued by geologists oil and gas in the Black and Azov Seas. Oil-layers are deposited there at a depth of 5 km at a depth of 500 c. Now open for more than 10 deposits, the largest of which is Golytsinskoe, Storm, Kazantynske.
Further development of oil and gas prospect Regions of Ukraine is connected with the investigation of the deeper layers and searches fields in new areas - in our region, in the east, in Volyn-Podolsk oil-bearing region (Recently introduced into service there Lokachynskiygas field). Great expectations rely on exploration within Black sea-Crimean oil and gas region, Osoblyvo on the shelf and continental slope of the Black and Azov Seas.
Age of minerals
Oil and natural gas of Ukraine deposited in rocks age of tens of millions of years, and somewhere in the Carpathian region reaches 500 million years. Age of coal is 350 million years old, and brown - only 30 - 60 million years. “The youngest” of mineral resources include peat, which was formed during the last 10 years. In contrast to Biд other mineral fuels, which belong to the irreparable minerals, peat is piled with trash dead plants and in our time.
Ozokerite - Fossil fuel is close "cousin" of oil. By waxystate also called mountain wax. Ozokerite used to produce varnishes, perfumery and medicine. Deposits of wax in the Carpathian Mountains, which belong to largest in the world, developed since the nineteenth Art.
Fig. Oil Lisichanskiy plant
Shale oil and peat. Shale oil prospected in Dnipro – Bovtyske deposit (Turkey region) Carpathians and Tail. They can use as fuel for thermal power plants, raw materials for plastic production, brick cement as the stimulant of growth of agricultural plants. However, industrial development of shale deposit in Ukraine was not performed.
The deposits of peat are mostly in the northern regions Ukraine, in river valleys on Polesie and forest. Total of over 2500 mostly small deposits. Peat used in agriculture and only a small part of it - as fuel.
Ukraine stands among the European countries reserves of coal, iron, manganese, titanium and uranium ores, sulfur, graphite, stone cladding, mineral waters.
On the territory of Ukraine is the coalfield (Donetsk and the Lviv-Volyn), brown coal basin (Dnipro), oil-regions (Dnieper-Donets, Carpathian, Black Sea and Crimea, Volyn-Podolsk).
Questions and Tasks
1. Why is a diverse species composition of minerals of Ukraine?
2. With reserves of minerals which Ukraine is among the leading European countries?
3. How to distinguish the origin of minerals and economic purpose?
4. Tell us about the features of coal in the Donbass.
5. What regions in Ukraine are promising for oil and natural gas?
6. Why Ukraine belongs to countries with weak secured by oil and gas?
7 * Explored oil reserves in Ukraine are now approximately 140 million tons, and natural gas - about one trillion m3. Annual production of these resources accounts for 3 million tons and 18 billion м3. Calculate how many years will continue operation of oil and gas fields by provided that no new deposits will be open each year and that production will be the same.