§ 58. Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences (textbook)

Section III. Earth - our common home


Never in the history of man on nature Zemlivplyv was not as significant as it is today. Мand dig huge career, and with obstructing the waste mountain-waste banks. Smoking pipes one thousand different businesses that nasychuyutokolytsi poisonous substances. Rivers are polluted water into the sea. Marnoshukayut animal shelter in place felled forests. Outlet man gripped the globe from the Arctic to Antarctica. Aktyvnoperetvoryuyuchy planet, we are provoking environmental issues. Can not we put pidzahrozu planet? Do not destroy the natural storehouse, which has become ekonomichnoyubazoyu and for future generations? Vidpovidina these questions gives geohrafiya, arming us knowledge necessary to predict the consequences of intervention vpryrodu.


Topic 1. The interaction of man and nature


§ 58. Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences


1.     Recall, in which groups share the minerals for use in agriculture.

2.     What are natural resources for the shortage?


Natural conditions and resources. Without the nature of human life is impossible. All history humanity - is the story of their interaction. The nature that surrounds us, creates natural conditions our existence. In this "engaged" all its components - rocks, water, air, soil, vegetation and fauna. From natural conditions closely related to our life and health, especially life and economic activity. Depending on their needs, a person uses certain components of nature. Then they get for it natural resources (Wealth).

DIVISION OF NATURAL RESOURCES. Among the diverse natural resources distinguish Mineral, land, water, climate, biological.

Mineral resources - Are different in origin useful resources. Many materials for our homes, cars, household items, and modern life benefits we receive from the bowels of the planet. Oil, natural gas, coal used as fuel for thermal power production electricity. These same minerals are the raw materials for chemical industry which pererabatyvaya them gets plastics, synthetic fibers, fertilizers and other products. Iron and manganese ore - the raw material for future metal (iron and steel), which smelted iron industry. A non-ferrous metals from ore (Aluminum, copper, tin, lead, zinc, etc.). Smelted aluminum, copper, tin, lead, zinc and other metals that are widely used in mechanical engineering. Non-metallic minerals (sand, clay, schebinka, salt, gypsum, asbestos, etc.) are widely used as building materials and as raw material for chemical, glass, porcelain and faience, and other industries. Currently, the recycling business launched to almost all known substances, that make up Earth's crust.

Thus, without mineral resources can not be a modern human economic activity. However, increasingly large volumes of mineral resources related to exhaustion. Mineral reserves have their limits and are irreparable.

Land Resources - A space needed for life and work of the population. About 1 / 3 of all land occupied land used in agriculture - arable lands, gardens, meadows, pastures. They provide human food. In other territories settle career, industrial enterprises, and how cities and villages. That land for human resources is vital. But now the planet has place of soil depletion, which significantly reduces crop yield.

Water resources - Is first of all fresh water reserves, which concentrated in rivers, lakes, reservoirs and underground. For all kinds of natural resources most people use the water. A lot (70%) goes to irrigation fields. A huge amount of water used in industry for cooling turbine power plants, furnaces, where smelted iron and steel, while manufacture of paper and others. And increasing water consumption for domestic purposes population.

The total stock of fresh water that is available on our planet is big enough. However, they are distributed very unevenly. So on Earth there are many places (drylands Africa Australia, America, Asia), Where people suffer from lack of fresh water. In addition, due to excessive water intake and water becomes scarce in areas where More recently it was enough.

Climatic Resources include solar energy, moisture and energy wind. They should be taken into account in agriculture. Already know that the climate depends on cultivation of certain plants. Where the climate (warm and wet enough), get two and even three crop year. In some areas of the globe climatic conditions with comfortable temperatures and humidity are favorable for treatment and rest people.

To biological are vegetative resources and wildlife resources. The huge role played by forests have long given individual timber, medicinal plants, mushrooms, berries, nuts. For economic activity is particularly important is wood. It is hard to call this industries, wherever used, and whether other products made of it. However, this value is not limited forests.  Woods called the "lungs" planets, because they provide an atmosphere of oxygen. Green areas and carry out soil water protection role, keep the animal world. Trees clean the air of cities dust and harmful gases. Forests have a health and aesthetic properties.

Today, forests covered about 1 / 3 of the land surface. But area under them in all continents steadily decreasing. Thus, equatorial forests in Africa, South America and Asia, destroyed almost half. This results not only to the catastrophic reduction of some species, but also to disappearance of animals that lose their usual living conditions.

Destruction of natural vegetation in the plains and savannas due to excessive grazing cattle and cutting of trees and a few shrubs has led to another problem. Deserts, which are integral part of the nature of continents in recent years seems to rebel, lived and went beyond their limits. You already know that tens of kilometers further south advanced Sahara in Africa. And there where cattle grazed not long ago and engaged in agriculture, now dominated sands.

Of all Earth's resources are inexhaustible and the only water climate. Mineral, land (soil) and biological resources belong to comprehensive, so they are reduced by use. Land and Biological resources a person can recover, or they are self-renewing, Mineral same - extraction.

IMPLICATIONS OF THE NATURE. Пryrodokorystuvannya, ie  natural conditions and resources accompanied by a negative for nature and human consequences. Extraction mineral resources leads to a reduction of mineral resources and the violation Land mines, quarries, dumps rock. Excessive use of land leads to a decrease in soil fertility, erosion, flooding and waterlogging. Increased water intake of fresh water causes deterioration hygienic conditions of human life. Predatory use of biological resources are threatened with extinction of some species. All this indicates irrational Nature- Inadequate, excessive consumption of natural resources. For example, improper plowing lands on Great Plains in U.S. resulted in loss large areas of fertile land. They  turned into a so-called bedlendy - "bad lands." Or another example: even 30 years ago The Aral Sea, Lakewas the fourth in size among the lakes in the world. His big swell with water River - Syr Darya and Amu. After completion of rash Project irrigation system, water channels of the rivers brought down the field, where grown cotton. Go to the Aral, which lies in the desert, river water is almost reached. Therefore, once affluent, highly sea fish has dramatically shoal and shrink in size, that virtually disappear.

In return rational Nature provides the following resources, where person receives it requires natural resources and natural environment is not causes harm. For example, more than 150 years ago in the west France people planted sand pines ridges and swamps. Now along the Atlantic coast in place of wasteland hundreds of kilometers of magnificent pine forests stretch. In Japan and Philippines on slopes created by high terraces for rice cultivation. In Israel for waterless and barren land made irrigation canals, desert and now grown fruits and vegetables. On Unfortunately, nature has examples of irrational chyselnishi.

CHANGES IN THE NATURAL COMPLEXES. From rate, which was studied in Grade 6, you already know that the natural complex (PC) - is combination of interrelated components of nature (rocks, air, water, soil, plants and animals) in a specific area. In natural complex its components not converted, unmodified by human activity. These complexes are, for example, the Arctic desert, tundra, taiga, which are not affected economic activity. Change is at least one natural component leading to the formation naturally-anthropogenic complex. Examples of such complexes can be steppes and savannas of America, Africa, Eurasia, where instead of natural vegetation dominated agricultural crops: wheat, corn, sunflower, sorghum and others.

So, on our planet increasingly appears more natural and anthropogenic systems, while the purely natural systems disappear. Therefore, the man responsible for those transformations that She brings to the natural world.


Questions and Tasks

1. How to share natural resources, needed to man?

2. What is the nature called rational?

3. Give examples of changes natural systems as a result of commercial activity.

4. The more complex natural different from man-made?