§ 54. Eastern Europe (textbook)

§ 54. Countries Eastern Europe

 

1.     Recall that the state is neighboring Ukraine.

2.     What people belonging to Slavic language group?

 

In Eastern Europe posted Poland Slovakia, Hungary, Romania. After the Soviet collapse in 1991 of political map of Europe, new independent countries, including Belarus, Moldova і Ukraine. All these countries are our neighbors. Countries that parts of Europe have a lower level of management than of the country considered Northern, Western and Southern Europe. In recent years, their economy and management of it brought about great changes.

UKRAINE.  Ukraine - The largest country in Europe. In the south it is washed Black and Azov Sea. Our Kpyramidal poplar has an advantageous geographical position as located at the crossroads between Europe and Asia.

Nature Ukraine is diverse and picturesque. Most of the flat. Average height Ukrainian Carpathians located at West, Crimean mountains - south. Dnieper RiverThat in Ukraine magnify Slavutych flows from north to south and empties into the Black Sea. The power is moderate continental climate, and only on the southern coast of Crimea - subtropical Mediterranean. The territory of Ukraine lies within three natural zones: mixed forests in the north, forest - in the center, the desert - in the south. In large areas of common black - the most fruitful soil. So Ukrainian land almost entirely under cultivation.

Majority populationthe country is Ukrainian. Besides them live Russians, Belarusians, Crimean Tatars, Jews, Moldovans and others. Most of the population, as in other countries Europe lives in cities. The biggest of them - Kyiv, Kharkiv, Dnipropetrovsk, Odessa.

Industry is the foundation of the economy. In Donets Basin (Donbass) Coal, which is fuel for thermal plants. The electricity produced at nuclear power and hydraulic stations. Iron ore and manganese serve as raw materials for ferrous metallurgy. Ukrainian machine-building enterprises produce a variety of equipment, aircraft, machinery, appliances. Chemical industry uses potash salts and sulfur for fertilizer. Developed wood, furniture, light and food industry.

У agriculturedominant grain crops: wheat, rye, corn, barley. Ukraine known as global sugar beet area: sugar beet - beet variety with a high sugar content in root crops used for sugar. In the south a large area occupied by  sunflower seeds - oilseeds, with seed oil is getting food. Crimea and Transcarpathia - viticulture areas. In animal breeding cattle and pigs and sheep - in the desert and Carpathians.

Developed all kinds Transport. Railways and roads linking together the most remote corners of the country. Air and sea transportation connects Ukraine from 80 countries  world. The main sea ports - Illichivsk, Odessa, Kherson, Kerch. Pipeline delivers oil and gas.

Area - 603,7 thousand km2

Population - 46 million people

Capital - Kyiv

 

 

Fig. Kyiv - major industrial and cultural center of Ukraine

 

POLAND. Polandgreat European country that is a neighbor of Ukraine in the northwest. It has Go to Baltic Sea.

Natural conditions Poland favorable for the development of the economy. Relief mostly flat. Only in the south tower average height - Sudety і Carpathians. The mild climate allows farmers to grow Culture temperate. The biggest river - Wisla. Poland lies in a zone of mixed forests, but forests covered only one fifth of country.

Poles make up almost 99% of the total population. Most residents living in cities, the largest of which is Warsaw і Lodz.

In Poland, developed various sectors Industry. From the depths of coal, natural gas, non-ferrous metal ores, sulfur. Poland - one of the largest manufacturers in the world sulfur, which is the manufacture of sulfuric acid is used in various industries.  Black and nonferrous metallurgy provide the raw materials engineering, which has prominent place among the branches of manufacturing industry. Polish enterprises produce cars, cars, marine vessels, and electrical products electronic industry. Notable were developed chemical and petrochemical industry. The textile industry manufactures fabrics.

У agriculture economy developed equally and crop and animal husbandry. On lowland north cultivated rye, oats, barley and potatoes, at higher elevations south, where the most fertile soil - wheat, corn, sunflower and sugar beet. Also cultivated vegetables, fruits and berries. In animal predominant cattle and pigs. The importance of poultry have and fishing.

The country has all kinds Transport:road, rail, air, pipelines, water (river and sea). The main seaport - Szczecin. Poland is known as a center of international tourism. In other countries Poland sells coal, nonferrous metals, sulfur, engineering products, chemical, light and food industries. Trade turnover between Ukraine and Poland is 1 billion.

 

Area - 313 thousand km2

Population - 38,5 million people

Capital - Warsaw

 

 

BELARUS. BelarusNorth neighbor Ukraine. The country is landlocked, but it is placed on the crossroads of important international shipping routes from Europe to Asia.

Belarus common woodlands- Sandy, marshy lowlands often covered with wide-, and mixed forests. World famous national park has Bialowieza Dense forestWhere preserved bison (European bison). Climate - moderate continental. Major rivers - Dniproand Pripyat. Natural resources Belarusian small bowels. There are peat, small reserves of coal, cooking and potassium salts.

Majority populationthe country is Belarus. In addition there are also the Russian, Ukrainian, Polish. Population density is low. Most residents live in cities. The largest cities are Minsk, Brest, Gomel.

The leading branch Industryare machinery, machine tools, primarily, automotive and tractor. Belarus is widely known in manufacturing heavy trucks "MAZ" and "BelAZ. Also produce watches, televisions, refrigerators. Chemical industry - fertilizer, plastics, synthetic fibers. Developed food, light industry and wood processing industry.

Symbol Rural Economy Belarus is a linen-dovhunets - Spinning a valuable culture that goes the manufacture of linen.  Sow also cereals - rye, barley and wheat. Traditionally, many gather potatoes and sugar beets. In the livestock farming dominates large cattle breeds of cattle, pigs and chickens.

Developed land types Transport. Pipelines country receives oil and natural gas from Russia. In other countries Belarus sells textile products, wood, chemical and electrical industries.

 

Area - 208 thousand km2

Population - 9,8 million persons

Capital - Minsk

 

 

Questions and Tasks

1. What state is neighbors Ukraine?  

2. Which industries are developed in Poland?

3. What are the main crops, grown in Belarus. 

4. In which European country you would like to visit? Why?