§ 33. Geographical location and study (textbook)

§ 33. The geographical position and history research


1. Remember where Earth common ice cover.

2. Who discovered Antarctica?


GEOGRAPHICAL PROVISIONS. Origin of name Antarctica need Search ... in heaven. Arktos ("Bear") - the so-called Ancient Greeks constellation Ursa Major. Land surface area around the North Pole that lies in this constellation was named Arktykos(We say Arctic). But the opposite Arctic region around the South Pole of Earth is called AntArctic (antimeans opposite). Repercussion of this names are and Antarctica.

Antarctica - Unique mainland, not like no continent of the Earth .. It covered fiveotuzhnym ice cover. The ice is dependent not only features of its nature, but also the form and size of the mainland. The area of Antarctica is almost two times larger than the area of Australia. Its shores are mostly high and steep ice cliffs. The continent has only one large peninsulas - Antarctic.

Antarctica to its unusual location. It is called  on mainland World's End - It far from inhabited land. From the nearby South America it separates wide (over 1 000 km) strait Drake. Antarctica is about Southern pole, Being located almost entirely by Southern Arctic Circle. As a result, the entire continent in winter plunges into the darkness polar night. In the summer months as the sun does not go beyond the horizon, shining and its midnight. At the latitude of the polar range of polar night lasts for one day, and with her promotion to the pole duration increases. At the same pole of six months (180 days) night and lasts six months - a day.

Antarctica located in the center of the southern polar region, which, in contrast to the Arctic - the northern polar region, called Antarctic. Outdoor Antarctica is the limit on the Ocean 50X-latitudes, okonturyuyuchy ploschu that is about 1 / 10 surface globe.

WATER Southern Ocean. Washed shores of Antarctica water Southern parts Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Together they are called conditionally Southern Ocean. Off the coast Antarctic seas, it forms a number that resort to shallow dry land: Weddell, Bellingshausen, Ross, Amundsen.

The waters of the Southern Ocean differ very low temperatures. Winter surface temperature is -2? 1 0S. In the summer of the same water warmed "to 3 0S. salinity waters a small (35 ‰) due to desalination of water talymy icebergs. Large number of floats in the waters of the Southern Ocean in winter and summer.

Southern Ocean the most troubled part of the World Ocean, which are inherent storms and high waves. So make it permanent west winds that prevail in these latitudes. In Antarctic waters, they cause powerful flow of westerly windsWhere water flow is 1300 km wide moves dovkruzh Antarctica from west to east. Speed of the carousel water is 3,5 km / hr.


Fig. The waters of the Southern Ocean


Fig. Ice Gallery


Working with map

1.      Determine the shortest distance that separates Antarctica to South America, Australia and Africa.

2.      Describe the geographical provisions of Antarctica.

3.      As the location of Antarctica impact on its natural conditions?

4.      Where the border of Antarctica. What is the difference between Antarctica and Antarctica?

5.      The State, whose scientific work in plant Antarctica.

6.      Where is Ukrainian station?


HISTORY OPENING. Facts biography Antarctica as unusual as and its nature. You already know that it was open later than other continents - even in the nineteenth century. However, about possibility of an unknown southern continent is ancient saying Greeks. Over 300 years before the opening of Antarctica to be seen at ancient geographical maps! However, the location and outlines of an imaginary continent determined at random.

У ХVIII. many researchers tried to find sixth continent. South fiercely sought Earth and English navigator Dzhems Cook. During round 1772-1775 he was swimming in it sailing across the southern polar circle. Still no vessel did not go so far to the south. Some days they probyvalysya through the ice jams, and solid ice perepynyla further advancement south. Cook discovered a number of islands and turned back to the idea that southern can not open the mainland.

In 1945 Russian sailors did. The expedition led by Thaddeus Bellingshausen іMichael Lazarus went in search of the southern continent. Geographic maps of that time and those places were very close. The sailors were unknown maritime areas to the unknown "white spots". Ice namerzav to snap ships rained down icicle, snow filled their deck. However, pilots courageously advanced farther south on the tiny, by our standards, sailing ships. They first came so close to the shores of the mainland, which could see its icecap. So in 1820 opened Antarctica. During swimming F. Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev inflicted on a map 1929 islands.

But it took another 100 years to South Зemlya asand was on ancient mapsах Greekів, Has acquired a real shape.


Fig. Research Antarctica. Southern Ocean


Interesting geography

As the ancient Greeks calculated Antarctica

Scientists ancient times believed that the ratio of land Sea and in North and South hemispheres should be about the same. Otherwise, they were thinking, balance negatively, and the Earth is constantly inverse side of the Sun with weight. Imagine the mainland just to the south and had would balance the abundance of water surface in the Southern Hemisphere.

Interesting geography

Doomed to eternal cold

To describe the mainland, which could be located in the south, James Cook is sorry paints grim: "This country is doomed to the eternal nature cold. It has no solar heat and buried by a massive layer of ice and snow that never melts. If a ship enters the harbor and then he risks stay there forever, vmerznuvshy in ice island.


TRAVEL To the South Pole. Funny and tragic history of studies related to Antarctic journeys deep into the continent for hard to point - the South Pole. At the end of 1911 from the coast to his race went two expeditions - Norwegian Penguins and English Robert Scott. Way zastupaly brave brutal cold, fierce winds, dangerous crack-abyss in crisis. However, R. Amundsen and his comrades December 16, 1911 reached the pole. They explore the surrounding area and turned back.

January 18, 1912 and reached the South Pole five brave Englishmen. However, there has majors Norwegian flag. They arrived at a month later than the Norwegians. In depressed R. Scott and his comrades went back. The weather was poor, lacking food, people were tired and frostbite. Soon they all died.

In the auxiliary detachment that accompanied the first stage R. Scott on the way to the pole, and who returned to the coast, and was our countryman - Anton Omelchenko. Since one of the bays in Antarctica named Omelchenko.

CURRENT RESEARCH. Comprehensive and systematic Antarctic research began with the mid-twentieth century. Then, between different countries the world had signed the international agreement that defines academic freedom in any areas of the Antarctic continent and use only for peaceful purposes. Its territory is forbidden to place weapons, to mine minerals and build industrial companies. Antarctica has become a continent of peace and science.

Since then, many countries are there to organize research station where scientists are working constantly. To help them come sano and tractor transport, ship, aircraft, satellites. So able to quickly investigate and put on numerous maps poorly studied areas. Each hike deep into the continent brought a new discovery. The world learned about gigantic glaciers, high mountain ranges, natural resources, especially Climate and the organic world.

Today, 38 Antarctic stations are Scientists from 17 countries. An international team of scientists continues to close  "White spots" of Antarctica.

Geologists exploring composition of rocks, geomorphologists - Ice relief hlyatsiolohy - ice cover, biology - plants and animals adapt to life in harsh environments oceanography - the surrounding ocean, meteorologists watch the weather.

At the station "Academician Vernadsky"Since 1996, working and Ukrainian scientists. They explore glaciers, geological structure, climate, coastal waters, the impact of severe natural conditions on the human body. There are scientific discoveries. In particular bacteria found that actively absorb heavy metals, invented a new way to refine prognosis earthquakes.

Results of Studies on the ice continent is very important because over Antarctica circulation of the atmosphere and waters of the oceans affects the nature of the whole Earth. The scientific data used for forecasting weather in different parts of the world, software radio, laying ships and aircraft routes between mainlands Southern Hemisphere. Antarctic Research continues.


Fig. In the Ukrainian station "Academician Vernadsky, vibrant work

FAQ task

1. What properties have water Southern Ocean?

2. Tell us about opening Antarctica.

3. In fig. Follow directions Travel to the South Pole. Tell us about the expedition and Amundsen R. R. Scott

4. What current studies are conducted on the mainland?

5. What contribution to international study of Ukrainian scientists in Antarctica have?


Practical work

1.     On the contour map and mark sign the South Pole.

2.     Sign the names of seas - Weddell, Bellingshausen, Ross and the Antarctic Peninsula.