§ 21. Countries (textbook)

§ 21. Countries

 

1. Remember the course of history, where in Africa there was an ancient civilization.

2. Which country belongs to Africa highly developed countries?

 

Countries - is part of the continent. Studying them, you become familiar not only with the peculiarities of nature, that depend on geographical situation of the country on the mainland, but also with the population and its economic activities. Characterize the plan (Table. 3).

Table 3

Characteristic country

 

Plan

Actions

1.   Geographical Location

Set:

a)   which is part of the mainland;

b)   which geographical area is located;

c) whether   coastal (ocean);

d)   which the countries bordering

2.   Natural conditions and resources

Define:

a)   which dominates relief;

b)   particular climate;

c) in   which is natural areas;

d)   which minerals rich mineral

3.   Population

Define:

a)   number;

b)   national structure;

c)   largest city

4.   Industries

Define:

a)   agriculture (crop and livestock);

b)   industry;

c) that   developed modes of transport

 

EGYPT. This state is located on north of the mainland, at the junction of Africa and Asia. Almost all of its territory (96%) is area in hot deserts. Climate - tropical desert, through which dry adverse to human life. From north to south crosses only River - Nile. Ancient Greek historian Herodotus called Egypt "the gift of the Nile." Indeed, the river - the only source of life desert. Nile Valley is the number of oases. Its fertile land is extremely beneficial for the development of the economy. That there are 6 thousand years ago there was one ancient civilizations. With a population of Egypt in second place in Africa, but almost all of it focused on a narrow strip of land that irrigated Nile. The vast majority of the population - Arabs, who profess Islam. All cities countries - big and small, ancient and modern - located in the Nile valley. The capital of the country - Cairo - One of the largest cities in Africa.

Egypt underdeveloped country. Basis of economy  - Agriculture. Dense network irrigation channels, many solar heat, fertile soils allow receive 2 - 3 harvests per year. Large areas of cotton covers. By collecting cotton Egypt is among the highest in the world. Also cultivated corn, rice, wheat, sugarcane, Finikov palm, olive trees, citrus (Oranges, tangerines, lemons). Bred cattle, goats, donkeys, camels, sheep.

Along with traditional food and light industry, which processing agricultural products, developing the extractive industries. Producing fuels - oil, natural gas and coal. Using iron and manganese ore, steel plants smelted iron and steel. Ores nonferrous metals used for non-ferrous metallurgy of copper, lead, zinc, tin. Develops engineering. Mineral fertilizers, medicines and other products gives the chemical industry, using phosphorus, sulfur, gypsum, rock salt. Aswan hydroelectricproduces electricity.

Oases in the desert connected by rail and roads. However, the combination complicate dunes, which, moving, constantly bombarded with ways. In the main port Alexandriavisiting ships from around the world. Ports Port Saidand Suez linked Suez Canal. It is important to international tourism. Every year millions of tourists come to look at the pyramids - Pharaonic tombs and sphinxes - colossal statues of lions with human head, which built more than 4 thousand years ago. Relax on the beaches of the Red Sea offers Hurghada - The largest resorts in the country.

 

Fig. Egyptian pyramids near

 

Notes

"All the money world will be here "

These words on the monument to Ferdinand knocked Lessepsu - French engineer who supervised the construction of the Suez Canal. Channel length of 161 km, a width of 120 - 300 m and 16 m depth, ten years built Egyptian workers. Opened in 1869, came into the world feed value. He became the shortest path between the ports of Europe and Asia. Many vessels carrying oil, coal, iron ore, grain and equipment, cut their way for 8 - 15 thousand km compared with the road dovkruzh Africa.

 

Area - 1 million km2

Population - 80   million people.

Capital - Cairo

 

Nigeria. Country located in the lower reaches of the River Niger, on the coast of Gulf of Guinea. It has a wide outlet to the ocean. There was a time when the coast was called Slavish shore. With this name Nigerians linking the many tragic events. About Nigeria said that it was in Africa miniature: in the south are growing moist equatorial forests to the north prosterlasya savanna, which goes into semi-desert. In relief predominate coastal plains and low plateaus. There's year-round warmth. Subsoil rich minerals.

Nigeria - Africa's largest country by population. It is very cosmopolitan: there are 250 nationalities living people, each of which has its own customs, traditions and language. Most of the population lives in villages.

Nigeria - an agricultural country. It raises the cocoa, oil palm, groundnuts, cotton, sugarcane, rubber plant. Bred cattle, sheep and goats. Fisheries are of great importance and logging of valuable species. Nigeria - one of the leaders of world production oil, which is processed at refineries. Also produced coal, iron ore, tin ore. Developed food and light industries. Great role play and now craft: Nigerians woven fabrics, weave mats and Basket vychynyayut skin. They are skilled woodcarvers and potters. Seaside situation of the country promotes trade. Nigeria - one of the world's largest suppliers of palm oil, cocoa, peanuts, oil, iron ore, timber, which are exported through ports in different countries. Centuries of human activity led to a reduction of forests and depletion soils.

 

Fig. At a port in Nigeria

 

Area - 924 thousand   km2

Population - 134   million people.

Capital - Abuja

 

 

Ethiopia. Country name Ethiopia in translated from Greek means Face, the sun's heating.  Most of the countries located in the highlands of Ethiopia. It is an ancient country that remained independent even in the colonial period. Because of the high plateau, above which rise mountain peaks, passes East African zone faults. Because there are frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. There are desert, savannah and highland areas with rich vegetation. Country inhabit Ethiopians, which includes several nationalities.

Ethiopia - Agricultural country. Year-round grow maize, sorghum, sugar cane, vegetables, bananas, citrus fruits. Pick wild honey. Ethiopia is the world's major producers of coffee. Advanced Breeding: bred cattle, goats, camels, horses. Agriculture sector suffers from frequent droughts, when the dying crops, livestock and comes hunger.

Mined ore precious metals - gold and platinum. Is the consumer and food industry, small steel plants. Major transport - road and railway.

 

Area - 1.1 million   km2

Population - 76   million people.

Capital -   Addis Ababa

 

 

SOUTH AFRICA. This country - the economic giant of Africa. It is located in the far south mainland. The greater part of it are plain, stretched along the coast Dragon and Cape Mount. Warm climate - tropical and subtropical. Dominating savannas, are evergreen shrubs and tverdolysti forests and deserts. The country has very rich fauna, which is protected in numerous nature reserves and parks. South Africa called geological miracle - its very depths rich in minerals.

Indigenous peoples and the country is bushmen Hottentot. They left very little - only a few hundred people and now still in its development from prehistoric level. Most of the population are people who speak Bantu languages (Zulu, Ndebele, Xhosa, etc.).. The first Europeans who settled and founded a colony, were Dutch. Lately they joined the English. To work on plantations and mines were imported Indians і Chinese. So South Africa called kaleidoscope  peoples and cultures. There are just 11 official languages - to no one offense.

South Africa enters the twenty most developed countries. Prosperous country it was due to extractive industries. It  is one of the first places in the world for diamond, gold, asbestos, uranium. Yes, it is 24% stocks all the diamonds in the world, and gold annually produced 900 tons. The real sensation was reported that in the depths of the country lies more than half world reserves of platinum, manganese, chromium. Among other industries developed metallurgy, chemical, oil refining, light, food.

The basis of agriculture is a major farms owned by Europeans. They are widely used machinery and fertilizer, so get high yields. Wheat, sugar cane, cotton, citrus, grapes. South Africa gives half of all third of all corn and sugar produced in Africa. Alone fruits grown 140 species, which sell in 40 countries. Bred sheep cattle, pigs. Agricultural exposed to drought. Fishing (catch crabs, anchovies, sardines) - as a profitable industry economy. Good roads, a dense network of railways and air Encourage the development of transport sector. An African country has a highly developed education and health.

Great contribution to the state treasury does tourism. Mesopotamian vegetation and fauna are considered no less rich country than gold and diamonds. Saved in national parks so-called "big Five (buffalo, elephant, rhino, hippo, lion) and other animals do South Africa, a paradise for tourists (picture).

 

Area - 1.2 million   km2

Population - 47   million people.

Capital - Chvane

 

 

Questions and Tasks

1. Why Egypt can be called "Countries in the arms of the desert? In which part of the country is concentrated mainly life?

2. What special nature and Culture of Egypt made famous in the world?

3. What did you learn about new Nigeria?

4. Compare features of nature Egypt and Nigeria.

5. What factors contributed transforming South Africa's highly developed countries of the world?

6.     Compare the economy of Ethiopia and South Africa.

7.     Which country in Africa you would like to visit? Why?

 

Bookshelf

1.     Byelozorov T. S. Africa Nature: Guide. - K.: Soviets. HQ., 1972.

2.     The history of geographical discoveries. Research Continents / life. GG Dyukov. - K.: Pavlina, 2005.

3.     Countries and nations: Asia, Africa, America, Australia: Children's Encyclopedia / Author-compiler LO Aspects. - K.: School, 2002.

4.     Countries around the world. Africa: Children among. HQ. age / Authors-compilers VM Woodrow Wilson and others. - Kharkiv, Folio, 2006.