§ 11. Arctic Ocean (textbook)

§ 11. North Arctic Ocean

 

1. Remember, the location of the Arctic Ocean.

2. Travelers Who first reached the North Pole?

3. What properties do arctic air masses?

 

Surface Ocean -   14.8 million км2.                             

Average depth - 1 220 m.

Maximum depth -  5527 m.

 

GEOGRAPHICAL TERMS AND DIMENSIONS. Arctic Ocean had many titles. In the old days Russians called his Jelly sea, The British - North, Portugal - Icy. In 1845 London Geographic Society adopted its present name. Word Arctic means rich ices.

Arctic Ocean  least of the oceans. It takes only 4% area of the oceans. Ocean nearly all sides surrounded by dry land and Eurasia North America. The main feature is its geographical location location in the center Arctic. It polar region of Earth, which occupies the entire space dovkruzh North Pole (Including the ocean, islands and coasts of continents). Conditional limit Arctic hold on Arctic circle. This determines the severity of extreme climate of the ocean.

Most of the Arctic Ocean Sea - okrayinni (Greenland, Norwegian, Barents, Кgrades) and only one - interior (White). Most Hudson bay not deep in the North mainland. With its Arctic islands ranks second after Pacific. They have the mainland (Greenland) and volcanic (Iceland) Origin. Arctic Ocean has wide connections with the Atlantic Ocean, and from Pacific connected to the narrow Bering Strait.

 

Fig. North Arctic Ocean off the coast of Greenland

 

Fig. Sailing in northern latitudes

 

Working with map

1.     Determine which part of the ocean is the North Pole.

2.     Which color shows the shelf? Define about which he is part of the ocean. What the Arctic shelf Ocean differs from other ocean shelf?

3.     Name the sea, located on offshore ocean. What about the depth they have?

4.     What are underwater mountain ranges across the bottom of the ocean? Continuation seredynnookeanichnoho whose backbone is the backbone Gakkel?

5.     What titles have hollow bottom Ocean? In honor of whom they are named?

6.     Which countries are located on the banks Arctic Ocean?

 

HISTORY RESEARCH Arctic. Coast pioneers Arctic Ocean-Novgorod Russians think that got to him at the end of XI century. Their descendants - Pomors who were fishing and fish preying on sea animals, well known conditions of navigation in polar waters. 

End XVAnd art. thanks swimming Dutchman Willem Barents The map was part of the ocean. Thereafter, for development Northern Sea Route, Russia, Sweden, Norway began to offer numerous expedition. In 1733-1743 he was the Russian members Great Northern Expedition investigated Arctic Ocean and caused him to map along the coast of Eurasia. This expedition was Most of the time, the number of participants, duration and scope explored territory. The memory of the researchers remained in many Place Names: Bering Sea, Sea Laptev, Shelikhova Bay, Cape Chelyuskin. So Travelers vpysuvaly their names in a geographical record of the Earth.

In 1878-1880 he was a Swedish expedition led by Niels Nordenshelda first made through voyage Northern Sea Route. Floating on the ship "Fram", Norwegian explorer Frytof Nansen collected information about the nature of polar regions of the ocean. His countryman Rual Amundsen first swam the Arctic Ocean along the northern coast of North America.

The beginning of a new stage in the oceans began research in the twentieth century. Famous explorer of Arctic was Otto Schmidt - Scientist who was educated in Kiev University. In 1932 he led an expedition on the icebreaker "Sybiryakov" members of which measured the depth and thickness of ice in the ocean, were monitoring the weather. In 1937 was organized on the ice floe drifting scientific station "North Pole" (Word drift translated from the Dutch means swim, chaseAnd drift- Move downwind or downstream without engine). Polar led John Papanina, Drifting on it from the North Pole to Greenland Sea, had a number of observations. Currently arranged on ice cake network of meteorological stations. In 1977, the nuclear icebreaker "Arktika" of Murmansk, overcoming powerful ice reached the North Pole. The whole way there and back length of 7100 km took 13 days.

In our time studying nature ocean continues using aircraft that can land on ice, and artificial satellites.

 

 

DNA structure and relief. У Arctic Ocean Rdelf so large, occupying almost half of the total floor. Partly it extends from the coast to 1300 km. A much wider than in other oceans, and marginal.

In the central part of the ocean stretched out parallel to each other thousands of kilometers of mountain ranges. Mid-oceanic Gakkel Ridge crossed by numerous transverse faults. In return Mendeleyev ridges і Lomonosov more like the mountain land. Ridges divide the bed Ocean deep basins (up to 4 000 m deep). There are hilly Plain. Arctic Ocean naymilkishyy. Its maximum depth of 5527 m is marked in Greenland Sea.

CLIMATE. Thanks its Geography Status, Arctic coldest of all the oceans. District North Pole polar night lasts six months, so the surface gets a little solar heat. Over 80% of solar radiation coming only in summer snow and ice reflects back to the atmosphere. Because Arctic latitudes are strict. Creaky cold, piercing wind, severe storms - such weather  form a cold and dry Arctic air mass. They have dominion over the whole ocean, and further penetrating the surrounding continents, causing a sharp decline in air temperature. Average Temperature winter down to -40 0C, and summer is about 0 0S. Very little precipitation - from 100 to 200 mm per year. Summer fogs are formed, which hold up to 5 days.

Above the Arctic chilled set of high pressure: there anticyclone dominates. However, from time to penetrate the Atlantic cyclones, which bring cloudiness, precipitation and strong winds.

Arctic air masses and cold though, but they are much warmer than the Antarctic. This is due oteplyuvalnym influence flows from the Atlantic. Therefore, in winter, surprisingly, the Arctic Ocean does not cool as well heats the dry Northern Hemisphere.

Water masses and currents. Due to severe climate water masses of the Arctic Ocean year-round have a very low temperature (-1,5 0C). A small salinity (32 ‰) causes a significant flow of fresh river water from the surrounding continents.

All this causes the formation of ice year-round which constrained Ocean. In the center of the slab of ice soldered together and form a solid ice sheet up to 5 m, which is not time for thaw short cold summer. Because of winds and currents constantly drifting ice from east to west. Summer along the coasts continents formed strip free of ice water. In addition, in the ocean is constantly icebergs, which are formed by covering the glaciers that slid off the many Arctic islands.

The main mass of water and heat in Arctic Ocean brings  in the Atlanticidoma you warm North Atlantic currentThat enters Norwegian flow. These two parts are called "Way of cyclones, which penetrate into the Arctic ocean Warm currents in the atmosphere give 70% of the heat and substantially heated pryatlantychnu part of Northern Arctic Ocean. Sea in the area of their actions will not freeze. Cold Transarktychna flow carries its waters from the shores Alaska to the North Pole and then to Greenland.

The organic world. Harsh climatic conditions cause the poverty of vegetation and wildlife of the Arctic Ocean. Most algae among organisms that can live not only in cold water, but even in crisis. In the warmer part of the ocean are pryatlantychniy plankton. They frequently fish that have industrial value - grouper, herring, cod, Saira, halibut, saithe, navaga salmon.

Many ocean Surovykh adapted to conditions. Almost everywhere in the ocean live walruses, seals, whales. In the animal world Arctic Ocean and polar bear is as much of the his life is in crisis. Numerous sea birds - gulls, guillemot, cormorants. At high rocky shores of islands they organize mass breeding - bird bazaars.

 

Fig. Walruses on ice

 

Fig. Seal

 

NATURAL RESOURCES AND Ocean. Cold water North Arctic Ocean was suitable for the organisms, so its biological resources small. In areas pryatlantychnyh seaweed extract and fish. On coasts of Greenland and Canada, local people hunt walruses and seals.

The search for mineral resources in the ocean is difficult because harsh natural conditions. However, the shelf off the coast of Europe and Canada already deposits of oil and natural gas to archipelago of Svalbard - coal.

Sailing in the ocean greatly complicates the difficult ice situation. Northern Sea RouteThe main  shipping line the Arctic is that icebreakers followed by caravans of vehicles.

For the waters of the Arctic Ocean Oil Pollution and petroleum products are particularly dangerous. If the warm waters of other oceans oil stains disappear relatively quickly as a result of natural processes decomposition, in cold polar waters they decompose very slowly and kept about 50 years.

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FAQ task

1. What is the peculiarity of the location of the North Arctic Ocean? How it affects their natural environment? 

2. Tell us about the history of the north Arctic Ocean.

3. What is the structure of the ocean floor?

4. What impact makes the Arctic Ocean in winter and summer at nearby continents?

5. As residents of the Arctic Ocean adapted to harsh environmental conditions?

 

Practical work

1.     Sign on contour map Name: seas -  Greenland, Norwegian, Barents, White, Kara; submarine ridges - Lomonosov, Mendeleyev.

2.     Mark the corresponding colors are warm and cold currents and sign their    

     Title -  Transarktychna, Norwegian.

3.     Make a comprehensive comparison characteristics of two oceans (the choice), using the plan:

a.      geographical position oceans (as located relative to the equator, the zero meridian, the tropics and polar circles; as connected to other oceans, coasts of continents are washed);

b.     landforms that characterize ocean floor;

c.     climatic zones, which are oceans (as it affects the temperature and salinity of surface water);

d.     features and vegetation wildlife;

e.      Utilization human resources.

 

Bookshelf

1.     Atlas Okeanov. - London: Dorlynh Kyndersly, 1997.

2.     F. Brooks Sea and okeanы: Encyclopedia okruzhayuscheho world. - Moscow: Rosmen, 1997.

3.     Voloshin I. I. Chirka VG Geography World Ocean. - K.: Perun, 1996.

4.     Zalohyn BS Okeanы: Book for students in. - M.: Enlightenment, 1996.

5.     Kobzar V. M. Three months in the Atlantic. - K.: Knowledge, 1966

6.     Osokin SL Oceans. - K.: Soviets. HQ., 1975.

7.     Tendyuk LM Asylum typhoons: About swimming in the Pacific Ocean in forwarding "ship Weather "Y. M. Shokalskyy. - K.: Young, 1965.