§ 5. Natural areas (textbook)

§ 5. Natural areas


1. Remember that the Earth is a geographical area.

2. That called natural area?

3. What distinguish between natural areas on Earth?


SPREAD geographical area and NATURAL AREAS. From the course 6 classes you already know that natural systems that are wide band extend in the latitudinal direction and change each other from the equator to poles are called geographical belts. This equatorial, two subekvatorialnyh, two tropical and two subtropical, two moderate, two subpolar (subarctic and subantarktychnyy) and two polar (Arctic and Antarctic). Among themselves they are different in many heat, which receives surface, prevailing air masses and prevailing winds.

Different ratio of heat and moisture у within one geographical area зumovlyuye its division into natural areas. Each natural area characterized by a particular climate, soil, vegetation, fauna. Location of natural areas subordinate geographical zoning- They change from the equator to poles (Latitude zoning) or from the oceans deep into the mainland (dovhotna zoning) due uneven distribution of heat and moisture. Changing the natural areas in the mountains called Explain high-rise.

WET ZONE Rainforest. Wet equatorial forests grow in the equatorial belt, forming three separate tracts - in South America, Africa and Asia. This nature reserve Features the largest in the world rich diversity of plants and fauna. Trees grow in several layers. They say equatorial forest abhors a vacuum. Therefore, branches and tree trunks intertwined liana - Plants with flexible coils of very long (sometimes over 100 m) stalk. They, as well as trunks and branches of trees, plants, parasites take up residence, who feed their juices. Great humidity allows many plants to absorb water directly from the air. For this they have aerial roots. These are such as orchids. Equator moist evergreen forests, ie plants do not dump all the leaves simultaneously.

Soils - Red and yellow feralitni. In hot and humid climates dead remains of plants quickly perehnyvayut. Thick roots of plants, located next to the surface, rapidly absorbing nutrients. Remains of nutrients daily downpours washed out in depth. Because these marginal soils.

In the equatorial forests of live animals which able to climb trees and nourish their leaves and fruits. This - insects, various birds, monkeys, snakes and lizards. The biggest predator is the leopard.

AREA Savannah. Savannahan area dominated by grasses. Among them grow single trees or groups of trees. Savannah in common withubekvatorialnomu belt, where are two seasons - humid summers and dry winter. 

Herbs, mainly cereals (elephant grass, bearded), summer grow tall to 5 pm and widespread acacia thorns. Winter grass dry, and the trees shed leaves. To stay for dry season and bottle tree baobab store moisture in their powerful trunks. A eucalyptus leaves deploys edge to the sun to reduce the evaporation of water from their surface. In the savanna widespread red-brown soil, fertile layer is easily washed away in rains.

Wildlife shroud extremely rich. First, very different herbivores: antelopes, giraffes, zebras, buffaloes, elephants, hippos, rhinoceroses. Among the common predators lions, leopards, cheetahs, hyenas, jackals. Many monkeys. Are found most birds - ostriches. Since insects are termites and tsetse fly.


Fig. African savannah


Desert. This natural area with sharp shortage of water and sparse vegetation cover. The rainfall there is a tiny (200 mm per year). Depending on desert location is tropical, temperate, arctic latitudes. There are also vnutrishnomaterykovi and coastal desert.

Tropical desert common in tropical zone, where over year rule dry tropical continental air. They feature exceptional drought. Due to strong daily fluctuations in air temperature mountain breed there quickly destroyed. Huge expanses covered with gravel or loose sands, which roam freely wind.

In the deserts are very few organic residues of plants and water, so soil is very poor, or not formed. There's no surface water. At first glance looks lifeless desert. However, its animal world richer vegetation. They live small insects that feed on spiders, scorpions, lizards, birds. They in turn eat predators - jackals, striped hyena, fox Fenech. The main condition of life in the desert - the ability to protect against overheating and a long time to go without water. Insects and reptiles hiding from heat zaryvayutsya in the sand. Antelopes and gazelles can run long distances in search of water.

In the deserts are oases- Areas with rich vegetation, which grows date palms, acacia and planted fruit trees. Oases occur due to natural or artificial moisture caused by the proximity of rivers or groundwater.


Fig. Desert


Plain. This - treeless zone of temperate. Instead, the steppes are rich herbal cover. Among grasses dominate cereals - feather grass, typchak, tonkonih.

In the lush vegetation that dies annually and forms many organic residues, formed fertile soils - black and chestnut. Animals - mostly rodents: ferret, jerboa, hamster. Due to strict Most winters, rodents that live in burrows, run into hibernation. There are also steppe ferret, badgers and foxes. Many steppe birds: bustard, partridge, lark, steppe eagle. Common prairie adder snake.


Fig. Steppe


Mixed Й Wide-forests. The zone is widespread in Eurasia and North America. Wide-forests that grow in Europe formed oakом, Beechом, Hornbeamohm, Julyою, Mapleом. In North America they are added to the elm, tulip tree. Wide-and deciduous forests are annually shed leaves in winter.

У mixed forests combined deciduous and coniferous (spruce, pine) wood. The forests led by many of the animals: elk, red deer, roe deer, wild boar, wolf, badger, forest marten, rabbit, squirrel. Birds common woodpecker, blue titmouse, finch, black cock. Soils there  sod-podzol.


Fig. Deer in the forest


Taiga. This zone occupies the northern temperate zone. It lasted severe winters and warm summers. Snow cover 200 days a year. Waterlogged area. Soils - podzol and peat-swamp. Growing conifers forests of spruce, pine. They added small deciduous species - birch aspen. Diverse wildlife: elk, brown bear, wolf, fox, wild marten, ferret, se hare-Bilyak, protein. Many birds. FAQ insect-bloodsucker: mosquitoes, gnats.


Fig. Taiga


Tundra. This natural treeless zone, stretches in the subarctic zone. The climate there is severe with prolonged cold winter (-30? -40 0C) short and cool (to 10 0C) summer. As a result of freezing soil and rocks formed permafrost. Due to lack of heat trees do not grow in the tundra. There common mosses and lichens, sedge, cranberries, dwarf birch, alder bushes. Plants stunted, stelyutsya land slope from strong winds. Among the common animals reindeer, polar fox, lemming, a white partridge, white owl. Many  Waterfowl birds: geese, ducks, swans, loons. Tundra soils poor in humus.


Fig. Tundra


Arctic desert. This ice desert zone, which extended to the islands Arctic Ocean. There reigns severe Arctic climate. Snow cover is kept 300 days a year. In shallow permafrost is. It cools the soil, prevents the infiltration of surface water and promotes waterlogging. Vegetation and fauna is very poor. During the short cold summer a little bit where there are lichens, mosses, arctic poppy, kuripkova grass. Animal life associated with the sea from which they extract food. Live here reindeer, polar bear, polar fox, lemming. Summer nesting gulls, chornodzobi goose.


Fig. Arctic desert


Fig. Natural areas


Working with map

1.      What laws subordinate position of natural areas on Earth?

2.      Define the geographical location humid equatorial forest zone. As the location of impact on the features climate and its vegetation?

3.      On mainland which are the largest areas of savanna?

4.      Tell the location of the steppe and steppe zones. Why not in the plain wood vegetation?

5.      Compare the location of the southern tundra boundary in Eurasia and North America. Explain the differences.


Questions and Tasks

1. What is called geographical zone? What geographical area formed on Earth?

2. What makes the concept "Latitude zoning" and "altitude explain?

3. Think about why the lower tier humid equatorial forests grow tinevytryvali trees and shrubs and no grass.

4. Describe area of savannah.

5. Why steppes of the most distorted man?

6. Name treeless natural zone. What prevents the growth of trees there?



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3.     Watt F.Zemletryasenyya and vulkanы: Encyclopedia okruzhayuscheho world. M.: Rosmen, 1997.

4.     Watt F.Earth: Encyclopedia okruzhayuscheho world. M.: Rosmen, 1997.