Eurasia. Climate. Climatic zones and areas (compendium)

Eurasia extends through all climatic zones of the Northern Hemisphere, so the natural and climatic conditions differ, as nowhere else on the planet.

main causes of climate heterogeneity varies the amount of solar radiation coming to the surface in different parts of Eurasia, as well as various types of atmospheric circulation and extremely varied topography.

In most parts of Eurasia dominated western transfer of air masses, particularly aggravated in winter, when above the surface of the Atlantic cyclones dominate Europe. This leads to the fact that winter temperatures in northern and southern regions here little differently. Summer zonal temperature distribution is growing.

A predominant influence of the western transfer of air masses and mountainous terrain influence of Pacific and Indian oceans, the climate of Eurasia is limited to relatively small areas in the east and south. Above the water areas of the oceans in summer formed area of high pressure, causing movement of moist air masses from the ocean to dry land. It formed wet and warm summer monsoon , whose influence extends to the southern and southeastern Asia.

Due to weaken the influence of air masses moving west monsoon and in the direction of the coast to interior areas and the dominance here of dry continental air masses, the average annual rainfall decreases to promotion to the central regions of the continent. Winter cooling causes the formation of land on the northern and central areas of Asia from November to March, the high pressure - Asian anticyclone . From this cold and dry air mass moving in all directions, forming on the Pacific and Indian oceans persistent cold winds ( continental winter monsoon ).

Overall, the huge size of Eurasia is the reason for the prevalence in most climatic zones continental type of climate. Although in general the continental climate characterized by large amplitude temperature fluctuations and low rainfall, there are significant differences both within the same climatic zone, and between different zones in the temperature range and moistening. So, for moderately - continental climate temperate zone characterized by relatively cold winters and warm summers. In the hinterland of Eurasia climate change on continental (temperate) and sharply continental ( subarctic zone) with little rain, warm, sometimes hot summers and harsh winters. Due to the extremely low winter temperatures here have the greatest on the planet of temperatures. Yes, near the town Ojmjakon (Russia) the difference between the absolute maximum and absolute minimum temperature of 103 °, S.

Continental tropical climate and subtropical zones characterized hot summer (temperatures in the desert to 52 ° C) and cold winters during which temperatures in mountainous areas often take on negative values.

because of the huge mountain country of the spreading on the mainland came mountain type climate with large temperature fluctuations during the day.