AUSTRALIA. Climate. Climatic zones and areas (compendium)


geographical position makes mainland arrivals during the year a significant number of solar radiation and the presence of almost all high temperature. A predominance of continental masses and tropical air descending movements makes the driest continent.

Much of the continent lies in the latitudes where the predominant pasatna circulation. Pacific air masses did not bring significant rainfall in the hinterland of the continent: Great Dividing Range captures trade winds and moisture is abundant precipitation only on windward slopes and narrow coastal strip. Almost 40% of the continent receives less than 250 mm of rain per year and only 10% - more than 1000 mm per year.

Australia is located in three climatic zones: subekvatorialnomu, tropical and subtropical .

for the northern part, which is in subekvatorialnomu zone characterized by high (about 25 ° C) temperature throughout the year and a large (about 1500 mm) rainfall, which is distributed unevenly throughout the year. Summer here is very humid with thunderstorms rains and dry winter.

In the tropical climate zone of generally high temperatures (in summer 30 ° C, winter 16 ° C) for moistening distinguish two types of climate: continental tropical of rainfall to 200 mm year and peak amplitudes of temperature and humid tropical (up to 2000 mm of rain per year).

subtropical zone of the southern part of the continent is characterized by a positive temperature throughout the year with a significant difference in the rainfall of western and eastern parts of the zone. Yes, the south-western Australia is located in the Mediterranean-type climate with dry summers and wet winters. The central part of the belt - the region's continental subtropical climate with dry hot summers and relatively cold winters. In the Southeast - humid subtropical type climate with uniform rainfall throughout the year.

Natural Area

The largest area of tropical semi-desert represented Victoria Desert and the Great Sandy Desert , which in coastal areas are moving in semi-desert.

characteristic of these places is red surface caused by high content of iron compounds in the sand.

presence very much, both deserts, flora here is explained near deposits of underground waters. Solitary acacia bushes and eucalyptus in some places pass into impenetrable thickets, along rivers and sometimes there are whole groves of eucalyptus . With animals living here ostriches emus, kangaroos, lizards and poisonous snakes .

Zone moist evergreen rain forest on the red-yellow soils feralitnyh - a narrow strip in the east of the mainland. Warm climate and sufficient moisture is causing the development of diverse vegetation: Eucalyptus, Araucaria , various kinds palms, ferns, bamboo . The rich here and fauna, and some of the inhabitants of these places is generally endemic (marsupials letyaha, koala, echidna, bird of paradise) .

the far southwest - Zone tverdolystyh evergreen forests and scrub . In eastern subtropical zone - the zone of mixed forests on the red-yellow soils with palm trees and evergreen beech .

In area savannas and woodlands are , which occupy large territories in the north and eastern Australia, characterized by different types eucalyptus, acacia, bottle trees , growing on red and brown soils. kangaroo, platypus, emu ostrich, Wombat - representatives of the local fauna.