AFRICA. Climate. Geology (compendium)


As the equator crosses almost the middle of Africa, in the northern and southern climatic zones, with the exception of the equatorial , repeat. There are two subekvatorialnyh , two tropical and two subtropical belt.

For equatorial belt for a year characterized by warm, moist air masses, equatorial type of climate with high temperature (26 ° C - 28 ° C) and total rainfall of over 2 000 mm, which are distributed evenly throughout the year.

Subekvatorialni climatic zones are located around the equatorial belt and also had a high temperature (25 ° C - 28 ° C), but here clearly seen alternation of summer wet winter and dry periods. This is because summer is dominated by moist equatorial air masses, and in winter - dry tropical.

Tropical zones occupy the largest area on the mainland. During the year, here is dominated by continental air masses - dry with high, especially in summer temperatures. Under their influence in the Sahara and in South Africa formed a tropical desert region -type climate.

extreme north and south lie in the subtropical zones with an average annual temperature about 20 ° C, which varies markedly with the seasons. Depending on the distribution of rainfall there are two climatic region. In the north and southwest Africa dominated the Mediterranean region climate, precipitation here falls mostly in winter, summer - dry. In the southeast of the mainland through the influence of trade winds formed subtropical region climate with uniform moistening.

Natural Area

reach natural areas in Africa caused by the flat nature of the relief, size and position of the continent. Because the southern part of Africa is much narrower and more hilly in the north, here reach natural areas close to the meridional. In the northern part of the same natural area extends mainly along the parallels.

Zone humid equatorial forests is formed by red and yellow feralitnyh soils under conditions of adequate moisture. Plants reach the upper floor height of 80 meters. The second and third tiers are represented Ficus , various types of palm trees and plants that are valuable solid wood. The lowest tier is represented unpretentious to light treelike ferns , various shrubs . It is also rich and fauna. Martyshko, baboon, chimpanzee, gorilla, birds, bats feel comfortable enough, spending most of his life in the trees. Ground tier captured elephants, rhinos, leopards, a python . FAQs here mosquitoes, mosquitoes, ants .

In zone variable-humid forests is dominated by trees that shed leaves during the dry season.

Zone savannas and woodlands are - This endless grassy spaces (grass - up to 5 m) with isolated trees ( baobab and acacia ) and shrubs. Because herbaceous cover is not time to decompose in the dry season, accumulated in the soil humus, which paints him in a characteristic red-brown color.

to shroud has a clearly defined seasons: rainy and dry, it leads to significant migration of animals over long distances in search of food and water. Wildlife shroud is very diverse: it can meet one thousand antelope, buffalo, zebra , wandering in search of juicy grass, near water bodies - giraffes, rhinos, elephants, hippos . Many predators ( lions, cheetahs, hyenas ). Also in the savannas lot of birds, often near water bodies form the huge bird colonies.

Zone deserts and semi was formed largely in tropical zones. Nayblshu area they occupy in North Africa because the northern part of the mainland is much wider than the south and is least influenced oceans. The prevailing hot and dry continental air masses with large temperature during the day leads to a rapid destruction of rocks and formation of stones and sand. As a result, formed different types of deserts: rocky (most of the Sahara and Namibia), and sand and clay.

deserted tropical soils are poorly developed and often saline, except in river valleys and places close to the surface suitable groundwater - are growing rich vegetation, from ancient times, people settle. These places are called oasis (the largest - the Nile Valley).

wildlife deserts rather poor. And those animals which live here, adapted to life in extreme conditions. Yes, hyena, jackal, cheetah To the moisture satisfied that gets to them with food. Antelopes and gazelles have to deal with hundreds of miles in search of food.

Turtles, lizards, snakes escape from the heat in burrows and hunting come mostly when the heat comes. Quite common here ostriches drohfy, larks .

Zone tverdolystyh evergreen forests and scrub are formed in a Mediterranean climate on the brown soil. Plants are well adapted to dry summer. Flora is represented African species of oak and beech, wild olive, arbutus, palmetto .

in the mountains of Africa clearly seen altitude explain : changing forests savannas, further up - onions, and tops the biggest mountains (even at the equator) are perennial snows.