The average annual temperature and salinity at the surface of the oceans. Climatic zones and areas (compendium)

largest on the planet is Pacific Ocean - an area far exceeds the area of all continents of the Earth and space almost equal to all other oceans combined, and vast expanses of a much natural diversity - climate conditions.

name gave sea of Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan. Led by the expedition crossed the ocean in 1520 during the circumnavigation.

sea floor has a complex topography, due to the peculiarities of the structure of the crust. Underwater mountain ranges, vast valleys, underwater chutes are stretched to the huge space, but most of the ocean floor flat. In the Pacific Ocean marked the maximum depth of the oceans -11 022 m ( Marianas Trench ).

enormousness Ocean explains significant differences in climate, which varies from hot to cold near the equator in the northern and southern parts. In addition, the ocean is characterized violation zone temperature distribution in temperate and tropical latitudes.

also abundant organic world ocean. This is especially evident in the warm latitudes off the coast of continents in surface waters. Numerous species of fish, clams, mussels, seals, dolphins, whales, and other representatives of the ocean depths before living world ocean.

wealth of biological resources to attract marine ocean scientists, tourists and fishermen. From that place humanity gets over half the world's seafood catch. In the offshore areas of the ocean floor found significant deposits of oil and gas, other mineral resources.

Because the oceans are important shipping routes, ocean water is very contaminated. Also significant are environmental problems associated with testing of nuclear weapons that once were carried out on the Pacific islands.

Indian Ocean has a relatively small size, but quite varied topography bottom. The greatest form of relief is the Mid-ocean ridge that the three branches diverge from the center. Margin of Eurasia in the northern part of the ocean increases by a large number of sedimentary material delivered by rivers. Continental slope in the Bay of Bengal is rapidly lowered to the ocean bed. Near the Sunda Islands series of underwater ridges represented hundreds of volcanoes, including the third - acting. Here is the deepest area of the ocean - Sunda Trench , c. 7729

Indian Ocean Climate varied with clearly pronounced pulse zoning in temperature and rainfall. Water and air temperature decreases from the equator and tropics. Varies greatly depending on the ratio of precipitation and evaporation of water salinity (from 34 ‰ at the equator and 35-37 ‰ in the tropics, to 42 ‰ in the Red Sea). In general, waters of the Indian Ocean is the warmest and naysolonishymy in the World Ocean.

significant impact on ocean climate makes the Eurasia continent due to monsoon circulation. Winter chilled powerful air mass moved from land to ocean. In summer, by contrast, moist oceanic air masses moving inland. Effects of atmospheric circulation of air causes the so-called monsoon circulation of sea currents: half water and southern Pasatnoyi monsoon currents move clockwise, and six months - against her.

many organic world and the natural resources of the ocean and its position (the main sea routes connecting the ports of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans) identified the development of long-standing and intensive use of water areas. In the Indian Ocean is the largest oil-extracting and one of the largest gas producing regions of the world - the Persian Gulf.

However, heavy use of ocean pollution is a serious threat not only to aquatic areas, but also for coastal areas.

naymilkovodnishym and smallest planet is ocean Arctic Ocean . is the natural boundaries Ocean coasts of Eurasia and North America near which is much okrayinnyh seas, bays and islands. The number of islands of the Arctic Ocean is second only to the Pacific.

main features of the ocean floor relief is the lack of significant transition zone and shelf sizes (up to 1 300 km wide), occupying half the area of the ocean floor.

ocean climate defined by its position and relatively small size. In winter surface water temperature is negative everywhere, and covered with ice up to 90% of the surface. In summer the temperature rises to 5 ° C, forming off the coast of continents floating ice masses.

Due to the presence of permanent ice cover over much of the ocean currents ocean weakly related to atmospheric circulation. Much greater influence on their formation have the water of Atlantic Ocean along the mighty river of moving Eurasia to the Bering Strait. The waters of the Arctic Ocean are relatively low salinity.

organic world ocean rather poor except pryatlantychnoyi its part, the reason for this - harsh climatic conditions. Complexity of natural conditions is explained and limited use of ocean resources.