surface is extremely diverse. During the long geological history appeared mountains and plains, deep ravines and slopes, and in places where the sea now, many millions of years ago ascend the mountain. Thus, under the influence of internal and external processes shaped the modern relief.
largest form of land surface is continents and ocean trenches , so called planetary . The main landforms of the continents and ocean trenches are mountains and plains. The mountains vary in age, height, appearance and conditions of their formation. Usually consist of several mountain ranges. By age they are old and young. The highest mountain system of the world are the Himalayas, and there is also the highest peak - Dzhomolungma G. (8848 m).
Plains also differ by age and origin: some appeared to place the seabed as a result of raising the earth's crust, others the result of destruction of the mountains. Some are plain faced as a result of long work fluid waters, eroding and carrying rocks, form the vast flat expanses of (Indo-Hanhska, Mesopotamian lowlands, etc.).
Oceanic bottom also has a relief. The plains and mountains on the land margin go into mainland shallows (shelf) and marginal . Further inland are basin, submarine ridges, deep troughs (the deepest in the world - Mariana, 11 022 m). Ambitious building is Mid-oceanic ridges , which constitute a single mountain system that extends through all the oceans of 75 000 km.
Formation of a certain regularity, and closely connected with the structure of the crust. The plains are formed mainly of sedimentary rocks (clay, sand, gravel) located on hard rock (granite, gneiss). These relatively stable and aligned structures that lie on the plains, called platforms . Lots of platforms, where a layer of solid rock (foundation) comes from the unconsolidated sedimentary rocks (case) are called shields . Covered with a cover sites name plates .
platforms lie in the plains and is relatively monolithic. Moving the same areas of the earth's crust, region folding , resulting from the collision and lithospheric plates causing the formation of mountains. At the bottom of the ocean in places divergence lithospheric plates formed Rift - breaks several kilometers deep. On them rising hot mantle substance that solidifies to form the Mid-ocean ridges.
significant influence on the Formation of the Earth have external forces. Water, wind, glaciers are the creators of river valleys, caves, stone pillars, dunes. Various living organisms leave behind holes, nests, etc. coral structures. Largely changing the Earth's surface and man: dams, piles, mines, canals - landforms that are created as a result of commercial activity.