§ 7. Pacific Ocean (continued) (textbook)

§ 7. Pacific Ocean (Continued)

 

1.     Remember that climatic zones spread around the globe.

2.     What properties of water masses are different?

3.     What are the current feel warm, and what - cold?

 

Climatic zones TYPES AND CLIMATE. Pacific Ocean located in all climatic zones, except the Arctic. It accounted for most of the hot equatorial and tropical zones of both hemispheres. This makes it a giant heat storage, and therefore the warmest ocean among others. In these zones observed the highest temperature (over 25 0C). The lowest temperatures (below 0 0C) characteristic subarctic and Antarctic. The rainfall, as well as air temperature, decreases from the equatorial to polar latitudes. Most of them - more than 2 000 mm per year - falls on the equator.

Pacific Ocean, despite its name, is naynespokiynishym on the planet. In the latitudes of the tropical climate throughout the year blowing trade winds. A near coast of Central America, mainly in summer, tropical arise cyclones - severe hurricane winds of the great destructive force. They move on northwest and fades only about Bering Sea. For temperate both hemispheres characterized by a constant and strong west winds. They are particularly strong in the 40's and 60's latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. Because of the frequent storms in the ocean sailors called these latitude "roaring fortieth", "ferocious fifty", "high-pitched sixty. "

Water masses. Features of climate impact on the properties of water masses. As you already know вamong the massescalled the large volumes of water that form in certain parts of the ocean and have certain properties. A considerable length of the Pacific Ocean from north to south cause changes in average annual water temperature of 28 0C at the equator K -1 0C near the poles. Off the coast of the Antarctic ocean freezes. Icebergs reaching the 40's latitudes.

Salinity of surface water also varies from the equator to the poles. Equator Pacific water masses are the average for the World ocean salinity (35 ‰). In northern ocean in the sub-Arctic water masses salinity decreases to 32 ‰.

 

Fig. Pacific Ocean off the coast of South America

 

Working with map

6.     In climatic zones within which lies the ocean?

7.     Name the parts, which form the water cycle in the southern ocean. In direction by water circulation?

8.     Name the warm ocean currents of the northern part. How do they affect climate coasts of continents?

9.     On the Pacific coast are more than 50 countries. Name the largest  coasts of the country: a) Asian and b) North American, c) the South.

10. Name the largest ports on the Pacific coast. In which countries they located?

 

FLOW And their properties. Surface currents in the oceans caused by constant winds. In the Pacific Ocean they form two large closed circle movement (circulation) of water.

In the Northern Hemisphere northeastern Passat causes warm North Pasatnu flow.It crosses the ocean off the coast of Central America to the Philippine Islands. It divides the flow into two streams. One turns to the south to the equator and forms Мizhpasatnu flowWhich goes west to east. The second stream turns north and gives rise to strong warm flow Kurosio. Flowing along Japanese home islands, he significantly oteplyuye their climate. North of Kurosio changing warm Pivnichnotyhookeanskoyu Drift. Under the influence of westerly winds and the Earth's rotation forces reject it deviates to the east. Off the coast of North America this trend again deviates to the north and creates a warm Alaska flow. Inflow in the north-eastern Pacific warm water causes outflow of cold water from there. They form cold California streamWhich goes to the southeast and meets Warm North Pasatnoyu. It closes the northern range of surface water Pacific.

Southern hemisphere trade winds in turn form South Pasatnu flowThat crosses the ocean from east to west and just branched into two streams. The one that turns north, along with North Pasatnoyu stream forms Mizhpasatnu flow. Second flow creates a warm Shidnoavstraliysku flow. She joins a strong cold flow Western WindsThat crosses the ocean from west to east. Off the coast of South America from her forks and heads north cold Peruvian current. Its water distavshys equator, flowing into South Pasatnu flow and close the southern Circle Pacific surface waters.

 

Fig. Pacific and Indian oceans. Flow

 

The organic world. Organic world - is ocean - plants and animals. In Pacific are extremely varied. In polar and temperate latitudes of the common brown, and in tropical and equatorial -  green and red algae.

Species in the Pacific Ocean several times more than in other oceans. They live at different depths. But many prefer surface waters. There is concentrated and plankton - small on all fours, shrimp, worms, Medusa, which is the main food of most ocean. A lot plankton in the equatorial, temperate, and Antarctic subpolar latitudes. So These regions are the richest by the number of fish, shellfish and marine mammals. Instead, tropical and subtropical latitudes, which are placed between these areas are poor in life, the so-called water the desert.

Only in the Pacific harbor such pinniped as seal, sea lion, kalan, sea lion. The islands are they going to plenty,  organizing rookery. Many in the Pacific Ocean and giant animals: fromynih whales - The largest animals of the world (up to 33 m long, weighing 160 t), kytovyh sharks (long 15 m) torpedo (weighing Dr.o 200 kg). Are very large and mollusks. Giant squidFor example, can reach 18 meters and weigh 1000 kg. Clam shell trydakna is 1,5 m long and weighing 300 kg. In northern Ocean common Kamchatka crab, which leads kochivnyy lifestyle. Constantly moving, crab eats everything he can find. A swing of his powerful kleshen reaches 1.5 m. live crab to 20 years.

At great depths, where considerable pressure, low water temperature and no light, the animals are sedentary  lifestyle and powered bottom mud.

 

Fig. Whale shark

Fig. Sea Lion

Fig. . Manatee

Fig. Beluga

 

WEALTH OCEAN. Pacific Ocean is very rich on natural resources: biological, mineral, energy.

Biological Resources - A fish, mollusks, mammals and algae, which are excellent food. In the Pacific accounted for half global fish catch. They caught each year millions of tons of cod, Hake, pollock, herring, flounder, halibut, anchovies, tuna. Among molluscs, industrial do the oysters, mussels, scallops, squid and octopus. Of crustaceans produce shrimp, crabs, lobsters bisque. Valuable industrial animals are whales. They eat meat. Fat and whalebone making use of medicines. Craft is for their pinniped beautiful fur, teeth, meat and fat. Eggs, meat and edible sea turtles, a shell horn made from a variety of products. Due to excessive harvesting whales, pinniped and turtles need protection. Because fishing is now banned them or limited. No less important, and algae. The most popular uses - kelp, known as sea kale. In Japan it is grown on special marine farms, with her train more than 300 dishes. Since algae produce medicines used as feed and fertilizer in agriculture.

Pacific Ocean - a treasure house of mineralnyh resources. Its bottom is lined with iron and manganese ores (zalizomanhanovi nodules - mineral formation rounded) phosphorites. Their reserves exceed the reserves on land. On the shelf by underwater mines and drilling rigs extract petroleum, natural gas, stone coal, gold, tin and other minerals.

In oceanic waters lies a vast energy resources. By using tide and ebb, currents and waves produce electricity. In Japan, for example, hundreds of lighthouses and booth working on electricity derived of sea waves. And near the Hawaiian Islands is a small power plant that uses the temperature difference of warm water on the surface Cold ocean and the surface. But energy resources Ocean man still uses little.

Across the Pacific transport routes pass. They twice as long as, for example, Atlantic.

Interesting geography

Sea beaver

Kalan - resident of the North Pacific islands Ocean. It is often called Kamchatka beaver. It is believed that soft and fluffy kalaniv fur is unmatched. Unlike other pinniped under their skin no fat layer. Heat them buoyancy and provides a thick fur.

 

Fig. Overgrowth kelp

 

POLLUTION PROBLEM. For centuries, people use ocean for their needs. As a result, ships, fishing, mining minerals and other activities in the ocean gets plenty of harmful substances. As a result - ocean water pollution that harms their residents.

Sources of pollution of sea water is a river. Falling into sea and ocean, they are not only fresh water but also fertilizers washed from fields, wastewater enterprises and settlements. Pollution comes through the atmosphere and as dust and soot. In addition, falls into the ocean and a huge number garbage - plastic bottles, plastic bags and others. Nearby coastal collected wrecks. So called global ocean dump.

It is unsafe because of water pollution tests nuclear weapons, radioactive wastes, toxic chemicals and as oil. Most contaminated areas are the Pacific coastal waters Japan (Sea of Japan) And U.S. (Gulf of California). Contaminated, harmful to human and animal water currents spread over the whole ocean.

Hundreds of years of Earth's largest ocean cope with contamination. But in the twentieth century. harmful substances that get into it, was so much that the nature of the ocean can no longer cope with their processing.

 

Fig. It is unsafe because of water pollution

Nuclear Weapon Tests

 

Questions and Tasks

1. What types of climate are formed over the Pacific Ocean?

2. How to change the properties of water masses from the Pacific distance from the equator?

3. What causes the formation of currents in the ocean? As they moving to the Pacific?

4. Why in some areas of the Pacific rages life, while others water areas called deserts?

5. What natural resources are in the Pacific?

6. Why ocean requires protection?

7. Consider why the western Pacific has warmer climate than eastern.