§ 57. The peoples of the world (textbook)

§ 57.  The nations of the world

 

What do you know people that inhabit our planet?

 

Most many nations around the world. In races distinguished group of people who call people. In a world of over 3000. Among them are numerousand those that include only a few dozen people. The most numerous Chinese people are (1,2 billion man), hindustantsi (219 million), Americans United States (187 million), Russian (146 million) Brazilians (137 million), Japanese (126 millionpeople). They form the bulk of population.

The people speak different languages. Each nation has their culture - its customs, folk songs, traditional clothing, food - which lead back to the past. Even homes in every kind of people. It also closely related to the natural features of the territory. Culture of peoples original - that is unique. Of course, these days the life of people unrecognizably changed. However, every nation, large or small, anyway maintain their traditions, what sets it apart from others.

Chinese.Chinese - most for the multitude of nations. They inhabit China - one of the The largest world countries. The Chinese belong to the Mongoloid race. This nation has a long history and culture. Chinese civilization - one of the oldest in the world. Among the many Chinese inventions - paper, silk, gunpowder.

Traditional Chinese housing is PhansaWalls which are made of various materials - bamboo, brick, clay, wood. National Chinese attire - shirt without cutting out free buttons. Festive attire kytayanok - tsilezkroyene dress - tin. In the Chinese food take mostly rice or noodles to eat sticks. Many traditional crafts: weaving, pottery, weaving from rice straw wood carving and stone (Fig.). Worldwide famous Chinese silk fabrics and porcelain, produced by several millennia. Widely known and Chinese lanterns and kites, which are symbols of China. Traditionally, there are occupation Wushu - The old type of military-applied art that includes recreation and gymnastics.

 

Fig. Settlement in China

 

Hindustantsi.Hindustantsi (Indians) - the people who inhabit India. They belong to european race. Culture Indians as well as the Chinese - one of the oldest in the world. India survived a lot of monuments - ancient churches, monasteries, palaces and mausoleums.

Traditional dwelling Indians - the house of bricks with courtyard. Men Clothes - pants and shirt. Women wearing colorful sariand short blouse. Dishes Indian cuisine is distinguished by sharp seasonings. Indians - fine carving from masters of elephantine bones, making figurines, jewelry, carpets, weaving with palm leaves.

 

Fig. Mausoleum Taj Mahal

 

Fig. Cowson streets Citynormal phenomenon for Indian capital

 

Americans U.S.. The people distinguish idiosyncratic historical features of formation. In pre-Columbian America natives were Indians. They were hunters and fishermen and were semi lifestyle. This was and adapted their dwelling - wigwamThat was light and durable. In winter Indians have enjoyed skiing in the summer - light boats - canoes. Traditional clothing - shirts, leather pants and moccasins, which were decorated with fur and beads, and and hats with feathers.

In Hui century. was a great "Migrations." In U.S. rynuv stream of European settlers, mainly from Great Britain. They squeezed natives on less suitable land. At the same time was mutual penetration of different cultures. Yes, Europeans Indians borrowed horse imported from Europe, which became an integral part of their lives. And Europeans adopted in the Indian ability to grow corn. Then, this culture of success spread to all continents and ranks second in the world after wheat. In XVII-XIX. in the USA began to import slaves from Africa to work on plantations. African influences have on modern music. Jazz, blues, country music - based on Negro folklore.

Americans United States - a nation that emerged from three three races and cultures: European, Indian and African.

 

Fig. USA - Country skyscrapers

 

Russians.Russians inhabiting Russia, which is our neighbor. They live in other countries including a lot of them in Ukraine. Russians belong to the european race.

Russian-frame house with a stove - a typical home. Oven obihrivala, it cooked, slept on it. National clothes for men consisted of a long shirt, trousers and rounders (winter - valyanok). Women wore sundresses, on the head - tape or handkerchief. Russian cuisine is known for its pancakes (Russian - "pancakes"), Porridge and pies. In rural areas have traditionally been Khorovodna song with extended melodies and provoking chastushki who survived to our time. Crafts Russians - woodcarving,  making clay products, painting on wood. Around the world famous stone-cutting art of the Ural Vologda lace, Orenburg downy shawls, varnished miniature carving.

 

Fig. Canal Saint-Petersburg

 

Japanese. Japanese living in Japan, which lies on the islands off the coast of Southeast Asia. Japanese belong to the Mongoloid race. Despite the fact that Japan - one of the most developed countries and has a perfect technique, great city skyscrapers and multi-axle, it has carefully preserved the traditional national culture.

The traditional Japanese house has a sliding wall of frames, sealed cardboard. The roof of straw or tile. The floor is covered with mats rice straw. Men and women at home are kimono. In women it belted wide belt that fastened a large bow on the back. National food is rice, which eat the same way as the Chinese, chopsticks with Pialat. In main menu includes a variety of Japanese vegetables, fish and seafood. Of cultural traditions of the most famous tea ceremony ikebana, Arts ornamental gardens. Crafts - dolls, fans, binding of bamboo baskets.

Brazilians.Brazilians - the people who inhabit Brazil, located in South America. Half of Brazilians are of European origin, the rest - Metis, mulattos, Negroes and Indians. Brazilians speak Portuguese. This is due to the fact that after the discovery of America by Columbus in Brazil was invaded Portugal. Then the main source of enrichment for the invaders were silver mines and sugar plantations. To work on the plantations, slaves were brought blacks.

Indians borrowed the Portuguese new plants, and Portuguese, in turn, brought to Europe the local agricultural crops - sunflowers, potatoes, tomatoes. Over time this culture spread to all world.

 

Fig. Carnival Rio de Janeiro

 

Ukrainian.Ukrainian living not only in Ukraine but also in many other countries - Russia, Belarus, Poland, Canada, Brazil and even in faraway Australia. They belong to the european race. Ukrainian people and its culture have very ancient roots deep in the millennium.

Traditional Ukrainian housing - house, which as in Russians had the oven. Subject of a national clothing and towels decorated embroidery. Among the common craft pottery and ceramics (Oposhnoe) Decorative painting (Petrykivka), Carpet (Reshetilovka) woodcarving, Easter egg. Ukrainian song features melodies and zadushevnistyu.

 

Interesting geography

Widespread name on Earth is the name that derived from the word "smith":  in Ukrainian - Kovalenko, Russians - Kuznetsov, Poles - Kowalski, England - SmithGermans - Schmidt et al.

 

Questions and Tasks

1. What are the most numerous nations of the world.

2. Describe the culture of Chinese and Japanese.

3. Doberit material, which would be told about the traditions and life of the peoples of America.

4. What are the cultural traditions of peoples of the world you especially liked?

5. What Ukrainian distinguished from other nations world?