§ 37. Climate (textbook)

§ 37. Climate

 

1. Remember why the sun's rays during the year falling on the Earth's surface at a different angle.

2. How depends on the amount of heat that gets earthy surface, the angle of incidence of sunlight?

 

Concept on climate. In any area may be different weather that change each other during the year. This weather is never one year repeats exactly the weather of previous years. For example, in March this year may be a bit warmer and less rainy than in March last year. But Despite the rejection, the weather is repeated each year in general. So many shows forecast mode - "order" of its change during the year. For Ukraine, for example, a characteristic change of season and changes weather - from hot summer to freezing in winter. And this variety of winter always the coldest season of the year, and summer - hottest. And no matter how varied hey, can confidently say that never in the winter we will not be hot and summer - Frosty. This is possible only in a fairy tale about twelve brothers-months that changed seasons. A collection of vernacular types of weather, which repeated from year to year, called Climate.

If the weather can be described by watching it during the day or month, you can describe the climate area, with The weather for a long time - decades. To do this generalized multi-monitor temperature, pressure, humidity air and other elements of weather. Usually characteristics include the information about the highest and lowest temperature, highest and lowest precipitation observations for all time.

Klimatotvirni factors. Before the climate in any part involved Globe sun, earth and air masses (laying) surface. Of amount of solar energyWhich receives surface, depends on heating the air. Air masses with certain properties that control climate places where to come.  Laying surface (Water or dry, flat or hilly, sandy, covered with vegetation or ice) may be differently affected and the emergence of solar energy and the movement of air masses. Number of solar radiation, air mass, laying surface is called klimatotvirnymyfactors.

Formation climate areas. Features depend on local climate many conditions. Of latitude depends on the angle sunlight and, consequently, the amount of solar energy received by Earth surface. You already know that the angle of rays decreases from equator. The smaller the angle, the less heated surface, and from it and air, the colder climate would be. At the equator the sun's rays during the year falling at noon on the Earth's surface almost sheer (at 900). So there high temperatures (above 20 0C) and climate respectively hot. From distance from the equator rays fall on some slopesangle of fall is less. They less heated dry land and sea. As a result, less air is heated and climate becomes colder - moderate. In the polar regions of the sun's rays fall at an angle so small that if sliding surface, so heat it slightly. So there winter cold, cold, and summers short and cool. In addition, ice and snow are distributed in large spaces, reflect the sun. The climate in these areas very cold. So, as a result distribution of solar heat in different latitudinal zones of climate change equator to the poles, ie zonal.

Climate area depends on far from Oceans and Seas. At the same latitude, despite receiving same number of solar energy area has different temperatures and rainfall, and hence a different climate. This is explained by the influence of oceans and Seas. In winter the air over the ocean warmer than over land. Because air masses coming from the ocean in winter, oteplyuvalnyy exercise influence pom'yakshuyuyuchy winter. From distance from ocean influence of warm maritime air masses getting weaker, because winter becomes colder. In the depth of their influence mainland barely perceptible. In summer it dry warmer the ocean because of coastal areas in summer is cooler than remote ocean areas.

Climate oceans, islands, the western coasts of continents in temperate latitudes with cool summers and warm winters (the amplitude of oscillations low temperature), lots of precipitation all year, called sea. For example, the climate of Europe in the middle latitudes makes big impact Atlantic Ocean, from which constantly westerly winds coming from the air mass. Off from the oceans deep into continents more often Clear of cloud sunny weather. Summer is hot and frosty winter (increased amplitude fluctuations in temperature), less rain falls (wet air masses are not income). Such a climate is called continental. There Climate moderately continental continental continental sharply. In Ukraine formed temperate continental climate. On the coasts and seas oceans dominated by monsoon winds that make the wet summer, cool winter and - Dry, formed  monsoon climate.

Table 6

Climate Controls

London

520 пн. sh.

Kyiv  

510 пн. sh.

Orenburg

530 пн. sh.

Irkutsk

520 пн. sh.

Komsomolsk-on-Amur

520 пн. sh.

Average January temperature

+40 С

–60 С

–150 С

–240 С

–60 С

Average July temperature

+170 С

+190 С

+210 С

+210 С

+160 С

Rainfall

per year

750 mm

600 mm

350 mm

300 mm

1000 mm

Climate

Sea

Moderately continent

Continental

Sharp continental

Monsoon

 

In the climate of the area affected altitude. You already know that with a show in the mountains Temperature decreases. So at the same latitude will be colder climate in the mountains versus plains. For example, in equatorial Africa latitudes, where hot and humid climate, towering Mount Kilimanjaro, on top of which throughout the year is snow.

For the climate and terrain is important relief. It affects movement of air masses: helps or hinders their progress. Over large plains air masses freely distributed to thousands of kilometers. For example, spaces of the East is nothing to prevent the free movement of north cold arctic air masses. Breathing even noticeable in the Arctic Ukraine. Instead, the mountains are obstacles to air masses. For example, Himalayan giant wall deputize way humid air masses that coming from the Indian Ocean, and do not give to move north. Climbing slopes of the mountains, the air cooled and precipitation drop out of it. So near and at the southern foot of the windward slopes of the climate is hot and very humid (over 10 000 mm of rain per year). But further north the climate is cold and dry (200 mm precipitation per year).

Ocean currents because of air masses affecting the coastal environment. Climate shores that are washed by warm currents, warmer and softer than Interior areas are located on the same latitudes. Coast, washed by cold currents, in contrast, are colder and drier climate. An example is the climate of Scandinavia, which carries oteplyuvalnyy impact of heat North Atlantic current. On the peninsula grow coniferous forests. Instead, most of the island of Greenland, which lies about the same latitudes, ice covered all year round. Cold flow also reinforce the dry climate. They cool the lower layers of air and it is as known, it becomes more dense and difficult, does not rise and does not create clouds and precipitation. From the warm currents of air heated and moistened. Since lifting it up is untouched, formed clouds, precipitation falls.

Thus, the entire surface interacts with the atmosphere through the exchange of heat and moisture. And their number may differ depending the nature of the earth's surface.

 

Interesting geography

Foggy Albion

Albion - is the ancient name of Great Britain that located on islands near the western coast of Europe. Addition "Misty" she took on a kind of climate: cloudy with a predominance mryachnymy rain and fog. He formed under the influence of moist maritime air masses coming from westerly winds from the Atlantic Ocean.

 

Fig. Climate Map of Ukraine

 

Questions and Tasks

1. What is called climate areas?

2. Why study climate areas is important to know its latitude?

3. Point to map a parallel that passes through your regional center. How can climate change with regard to relief and remoteness from the Atlantic Ocean, if this move parallel to the west or east?

4. Where and why more rain falls - the western or eastern slopes of the Carpathians?

5. What would the climate on the west coast of Europe, if the North Atlantic current was not warm and cold?