§ 36. Weather (textbook)

§ 36. Weather

 

1. Remember what are air masses.

2. What information can be obtained from the weather forecast?

 

Elements weather. Тemperatura air, wind direction, atmospheric pressure, cloudiness, precipitation - are the main elements of weather. All of them closely and inter-related. Therefore, changing one of them leads to other changes. Thus, air temperature and humidity affect the distribution of atmospheric pressure, pressure - to the winds, the winds - the Air. In turn, precipitation, cloudiness, wind affect the temperature. The interaction of all these elements and processes involves certain state of the atmosphere.

So when talking about Weather, The mean state of the lower layer of the atmosphere in this place at a certain time (or at any time - day, month, season.)

Change weather. The main weather feature is variability. Weather changes over time - during the year, seasons and even days. This is evidenced daily reports of weather.

Indeed, the weather seldom remains unchanged for long. Only in our country one day she may change several times: morning, for example, was cool at night, it became warmer and more rain in the evening clouds disappeared and the wind ceased, had the night dew. The first messenger is the weather changes change in air pressure, wind speed and direction. Changing these elements and weather phenomena are often adversely affects the health condition of some people. If within a few days the weather remains the same, it is called stable.

The main cause of weather changes is uneven heating of the Earth's surface, which causes movement of air masses. As they go, they bring a warming or cooling, or windy windless, cloudy or cloudless, with precipitation, or cloudy weather. For example, in most of Ukraine "weather came from the west" - comes from the west air mass from northern Atlantic Ocean. In summer it brings not only in Ukraine but also for the most part of the East cloudy cool weather. When invasion of Arctic air masses in summer and winter comes a cold snap.

Types weather. Describing the weather as hot, warm, cold, frosty, we're talking about the type of weather. Type weather - A generalized description of the weather, including information about the mean daily temperature data, the state of cloudiness, precipitation, presence or absence of wind.

Thus, in various parts of the Earth nearly continuously observed the same type of weather: at the equator - hot with abundant rains in the tropics - hot and dry, in polar regions - frosty and dry. In our temperate latitudes in summer weather warm, sometimes hot, in winter - cold, frosty, with temperatures below 0 0C in spring and autumn temperatures moving from negative to positive. These features are characteristic of weather or typical.

 

Table 5

Types forecast for average temperatures, 0 С

 

Cold weather season

+2 – 0

-1 – -3

-4 – -12

-13 – -22

-23 – -33

-34 – 43

Below -43

Thaw

Poorly frosty

Moderately frosty

Much frosty

Very frosty

Ill-frosty

An extremely frosty

Warm weather season

0 – 3

4 – 8

9 – 15

16 – 22

23 – 28

29 – 33

Above 34

Cold

Cool

Moderately warm

Warm

Fry

Very hot

Extremely hot

 

Prediction weather. Information about the weather every day we hear from TV screens and radio printed in newspapers, contained on the web. This suggest Predictions forecast the next day - give her prognosis. Weather forecast - is making scientific reasonable assumptions about its future state. The task is very difficult.

For weather prediction relevant information about the state of the atmosphere (temperature, pressure, humidity, wind, precipitation and other phenomena) over all the earth's surface. Their systematically collect 10 000 weather stations around the world. At the top of the atmosphere "Inspect" meteorological satellites. Devices, they are equipped convey the latest information on precipitation and snow cover. Results observations of weather stations and meteorological satellites are transferred to special Institutions - MeteorologicalPlaced in almost all countries. Gidrometeotsentr Ukraine is located in Kiev. There, with modern computers, all information processed and transmitted World weather serviceCenters, which are in Washington (USA), Moscow (Russia) і Melbourne (Australia). For the international exchange produced his "meteomovu"Meteorologist clear all world.

The data were obtained during observations meteorologists put on a weather map, called synoptic. It legends and record numbers basic information about the state of the weather. With their help specialists-weatherman are intermittent (For 1-3 days) and long (Week, month, season) weather.

Weather prediction - the result of hard work meteorologists around the world who gathered, analyzed and transmitted information about the state of the atmosphere.

Weather forecast for general use required all. Specific predictions are for agricultural workers. Particular attention is paid to prediction of dangerous weather phenomena - severe fog, hail, frost, ice, droughts and so on. Observations by satellites for the emergence and movement paths of hurricanes enable early warn of the danger of ship captains and pilots. They suggest where avoid the meeting with terrible disaster. And warn residents of coastal storm.

 

Fig. Synoptic chart

 

Questions and Tasks

1. What is called the weather? Describe the weather today.

2. What are the basic elements of weather.

3. Why weather changes during the day?

4. How does the weather in Ukraine since the advent air masses from the Atlantic Ocean?

5. What types of weather have been this month?

6. Everyone is well aware of such a local sign of bad weather: "Before the Rain swallows fly low." Can you explain why?