§ 25. Mountains (textbook)

§ 25.  Mountains


1. Remember, like a map depicting the mountains.

2. In what mountains you had to visit?


The relief of the mountains. Mountains rise abruptly to a considerable height above adjacent surface. Special mountain has sole, slopes and top. Slopes are be steep or flat. Summits - the highest of the mountains - are rounded, sharp, flat.

Single mountains occur in nature  rare. Typically, they represent a large Group - mountain country.Highland occupies a large area and extends for hundreds and sometimes thousands of kilometers. It traced mountain ranges - Linearly elongated group of mountains. Like a stone giant waves, they can run in parallel or in different directions. The highest part of the spine called crest. Ridges separated longitudinal reductions - mountain valleys. Easy to move lower in the mountains called passes. Mountains rise to significant high, sometimes up to several kilometers.

Their distinguished by the formation, age and height.

The formation of mountains. Zdiynyaty earth crust up to thousands meters, creating a mountain, can the internal forces of the Earth. Mountains appear on the moving sections of the crust. There are folded, fold-hat, volcanic mountains.

Folded mountains are thickness of rocks that the impact of internal forces in giant vyhnulysya creases. Yes zmynayutsya land lithospheric plates during their convergence. Striking example is the movement Indo-Australian plate, which pushes Himalayas up. At such movements could elbow folds and areas of the seabed accumulation of sedimentary rocks. The fact that the place of many hills were once Sea, indicating the remains of marine organisms in the rocks that are folded mountains. Fold is Crimean Mountains, the Carpathians, the Alps, the Himalayas, the Andes.

Folded-hat mountains emerged in areas of earth crust, where distant past, there were already folded mountains. Ancient mountain eventually collapsed and gradually turned into a hilly plain. Crust lost there plasticity and acquired resistance. And when were held horotvorchi processes inside the rocks split up into blocks. It formed Urals, Tien Shan.

Volcanic mountains - Result volcanic eruptions. Spreading, lava forms raised in the form of cones, domes or panels. It may formed isolated mountains, such as Kilimanjaro in Africa. If volcanic mountains merge their soles, they are formed of volcanic ridges, eg Volcanic in the Ukrainian Carpathians.

Age Mountains. By age mountains can be young and old. Young mountains formed by geological standards recently - over the past 25 millionyears (Cenozoic era). The young are folded mountains. They usually high with steep slopes (Alps, Himalayas). Age old mountain exceed 300-400 millionyears. They are low (Ural, Nordic Mountain). Mountains of Ukraine despite the mean height, belong to young age.

Mountains. During the height above sea level mountain distinguish low serednovysoki and high.

Low mountains have a relatively small absolute height - 1000 m. Their  flat or rounded tops and gentle slopes. These are most of the ridges Crimean Mountains. Serednovysoki mountains reach heights of 1 000 to 2 000 c. For example, Carpathians (Goverla (2061 m) - highest peak in Ukraine). High mountains rise more than 2000 m. They distinguish sharp peaks with snow and ice, and steep rocky slopes. The highest tops of high mountains above 8000 m. Such heights - 14 and they all located in the mountains of Asia. The highest mountains are the Earth Himalayas. Their name means "home of snow". It was there that focus 12vosmytysyachnykiv" including the highest peak of our planet - Dzhomolungma (Everest)  height of 8850 m.

On physical map of the mountain indicated different shades of brown - from light brown to dark brown depending on the height. The highest peak marked with dots and showing their height in meters.


Fig. Volcano Cotopaxi. Ecuador


Change Mountains.Impressions of the sanctity and finality of the mountains false. Immediately after the formation they begin to collapse under the action of weathering, water, wind or glaciers. Progress is continuously. Glaciers and mountain rivers changing slopes, cut through ranges, bisected by deep gorges. They carry the debris to the foot Mountains and more - on the neighboring plains. Pass millions of years. The mountains are falling, smoothed gabled top. Powerful ridges once more remind Hills. Subsequently formed the great plains. Mark in a short time as rise and collapse the mountain impossible. This spent millions of years.

In result in the destruction of mountains piled up in many pieces rocks (boulders, gravel, sand). They can lead to such terrible phenomena as rockfall, landslides, scree, mud. Villagehryazekam'yani flows that arise suddenly in the mountains after heavy rains or melting snow.

People also alter the mountains, although they in plains compared with less fit for living and business.  In mountains extract minerals lay a tunnel and just ways.If people cut down forest, then bare slopes of the stronger "are" destructive external forces.

Mountains affect its majesty and grandeur. They are inaccessible peaks, which in minyatsya the sun, scaring people anxious admiration and delight.


Interesting geography

Can fall Himalayas?

Centimeter by inch tiller would combat in mountains and forest land for cultivation. Enough about 30 years to destroy almost all forests near Everest. However, terrace fields on the slopes can be cause ecological disaster. It was necessary to violate the integrity of the mountains, and they punished people collapses and landslides. There were even awful predictions: if the cutting forest does not stop, it will slip down the Himalayas, destroying everything in its path. But in time people realize their mistakes. Now they carefully zalisnyuyut slopes trees and bushes.

Question and objectives

1. What mountains are called? What features of mountain terrain?

2. As formed and folded fold-hat mountain?

3. What are the mountains of age?

4. How to distinguish the mountain height? Give examples.

5. How can I prove that the rocks that make up the mountain, marine origin?

6. How can change the mountain?

7. Raising the Carpathians occurs at speeds of 1-2 cm per year. How many years took to the mountains to reach the present height?

8. Name the map and show the highest mountains on each continent.