§ 9. Targeting namistsevosti (textbook)

§ 9. Targeting areas


Determination the parts.Guided - means to identify areas of their position relative to the parties horizon, the surrounding objects. The main direction for the orientation adopted consider a line north-south. Highlights the parts of four - North (Пн.) South (Pd.), west (Зх.) east (Sh.). In addition there are intermediate parties horizon. For example, between north and east is north-east (Mon SE.) between the south and west - south-west (Pd. W.) And others. Be able to navigate is important. There are cases where the loss targeting objectives died expedition. Conversely, the ability to find landmarks helped local people.

On areas can be guided in different ways: the Sun, stars, local signs. For all the common methods is that first determine where the north. In a clear day you can navigate by the sun. At noon, at 12 h, The sun is in the south. So the shadow of the items will be sent to the north. Line shadows north-south line called the midday. If the day gloomy and Sun is not visible, you can navigate to local characteristics. Thus, since north of the bark of trees and large rocks covered with moss. On the south side Crowns of trees thicker than the north. To the south of the nearest tree located anthill. At night, when no visible signs of local and no sun You can navigate by the stars. You need to find the night sky Polar star. It indicates the direction to the north. To avoid mistakes, first seven stars are the constellation of the Great cart (Ursa Major), which resembles bucket with a long handle. Then imagine a straight line connecting the two stars, located at edge of the bucket. Then continue the line to the extreme stars of the "handle" small constellation Wagon (Ursa Minor). This extreme bright star and will be  Polar.

Knowing at least one side of the horizon, it is easy to determine all the others. For the direction, for example, identify other north, you become a face to the north and Dilute akimbo. On the right hand will be east on the left - west, and behind - south.

More accurately parties horizon can be set devices. The most convenient one is compass. Magnetized compass needle always dark tip northward. To identify the parts of the compass is placed on a horizontal surface (or hand). Then, return the kettle so that the mark Пн. on the compass scale coincided with the dark end of the arrow. This means that you zoriyentuvaly compass. Then label the parts on the main dial compass will indicate areas where these parties are located.

That not get lost in unfamiliar terrain while walking in a forest, a hike in mushrooms, hiking, you must set the compass in which direction you go to the path. Only you can determine in which direction should return. For example, if you went to the south-east, then return to north-west.


Fig. Determination of the parts for the annual rings truncated tree


Fig. Finding Polaris and the stars to the North


Azimuth. Often directions the desired object do not match any major nor minor parties horizon. Then you can determine the exact direction of the compass scale, setting the azimuth. Azimuth - is the angle between the direction of north and direction on any object on the ground. Vidlichuyut azimuth direction of the north right by the way clockwise. Since the circumference of the dial compass, as every circle has 3600, The value of azimuth expressed in degrees from 0 to 3600. For example, if the object is located exactly in the north, it azimuth of 00 or 3600If the east - 900, in the South - 1800In the west - 2700.

For determine the azimuth compass return so that the division 00 coincided with dark end of the arrow. Then put a thin glass stick so that it end point to the desired subject. In the place where the rod tip towards the object crosses the scale, determine the value of azimuth.


Fig. Azimuth of the compass


If your azimuth 600 need to go 500 steps, then the azimuth 1200 400 steps and there to meet with another group, the procedure has be this: Gambling in the place where the movement begins. Direction of the compass by the parties horizon. Look at the compass dial number 600That shows the azimuth value, so you need to pass the first distance. Put on compasses thin glass stick so that it connected the center with this Arrow number. Sticks indicate the direction of motion. If the trend sticks match any visible object on the ground, like a tall tree, then compass can hide and move in the direction of the tree, vidrahovuyuchy way the number of steps. If no such object or you go through the forest, then need to keep the compass in front of you so that it coincided with the zero division dark end of the arrow, and go in a given direction. Having passed the first distance (in our example, 500 steps), define a new azimuth and keep going. Knowing azimuth your way, you can move at night, in fog, snowstorm or in dense forest and reach the target.

Measurement distances on the ground. To find the azimuth object must be able measure distances on the ground. The small distance between closely spaced objects measuring devices - tape or subway. For example, you can measure the length and width of the classroom. The distance between two far objects are located or traversed path, the trip more comfortable pace:Multiply the number of covered steps on their length. You need to know average length of your step. To define it, you need to measure area with tape length, eg 100 m. Then pass this distance counting steps. Suppose you have 100 meters, making 150 steps. Thus, average length of your step is about 66 cm (100 m translate into centimeters; 10 000 cm: 150 = 66 cm). When measured in large stride easier to count pairs (for example, just under the left foot). Then the length of one couple of steps will be double the average stride length.

Less exact distance can be determined by time spent on walking. Thus, if 1 km you pass 15 хвThen an hour walk about 4 km.


Questions and Tasks

1. Determine the direction of your school are mail, shop or other visible buildings.

2. In what direction was moving a group of tourists when they saw the star of the North right away?

3. What is azimuth? What is its definition?

4. How can we measure the distance on the ground?

5. Students from point A to point B was 360 in azimuth0 200 m (conditionally Check the notebook this distance 20 cm). From point B to point B, he was still the same distance in azimuth 900. From point B the same distance he the azimuth was 1800. Draw a path in the disciple notebook and determine by distance and azimuth on which he left to go to point A.