§ 7. Opening a new era
In New time (from the tenthVIII to the Twentieth century.) Water areas in the study were first English and Russian mariners. They cared a legend that came in ancient times, the existence far to the south Southern Hemisphere unknown land. Many travelers have dreamed it open.
Fig. Eld maps, where instead of Antarctica and Australia shows a fantastic Southern mainland. MapMercator
Expeditions James Louse. У ХVIII. unknown continent of the southern hemisphere and was looking EnglishmanJames Cook.He made three round- swimming.
Under the first (1768-1771 biennium) his expedition in 1770 went to Australia.Дж. Cookin effect again opened its after the Dutch who hid information about this continent. He carefully marked on the map of open dozens of islands, bays and capes. However, the results modestly assessed his expedition: "Open, made during the voyage, is not especially large. Such restraint was explained that he did not found an unknown continent to the south.
Under the second voyage (1772-1775) in the Southern Hemisphere sailingДж. Lousewent too far on south. And the way forward for them, hiding the solid ice. The ships returned back. A few months have been two attempts to penetrate further south. But even "steel captain was forced to return again.Persistent search for the legendary southern lands,Cookdecided that it is impossible to open.
The purpose third journey (1776-1779 biennium) a search path around North America Sea from the north. However, the North, as South on the other side planet, met seafarers ice cold and storm. Fearing get into ice trapCookdeparted. During the winter of Hawaii he was killed in a skirmish with natives.
ВnesokJames Lousein the research world wide. Heinflicted on the outline map of the Pacific and numerous islands.His ship approached very close to the unknown mainland to the south. Open only prevented him Antarctic ice. In 40 years it will make other brave sailors.
Fig. Routes voyagesJames Louse(1728-1779 biennium)
Cruise IIKruzenshternand Y.Lysyansky. The first of Russian citizens, who made travel around the world, wereJohnKruzenshtern і Yuri Lysyansky. In 1803, they went withBaltic Seaon the sloop "Hope" and "Neva". GoneNorth Sea, Reached the Atlantic Ocean and on the way to the south of Africa. More route prolih along the shores of Asia across the Pacific to South America. Rounded it out south Atlantic Ocean I.Kruzenshternand Y.Lysyanskyin 1806 returned home safely
І. Kruzenshternand Y.Lysyanskydiscovered and described unknown islands. They made detailed maps of northern Pacific and adjacent shores of Asia and North America. After Cruise pilots described their brilliant diving.
Fig. Route Swimming IIKruzenshternand Y.Lysyansky
Opening of Antarctica.In the nineteenth century. on search of the unknown continent of the southern hemisphere left Russian sailors. Sloop "Vostok"And" peaceful "commandedFadiBellingshausen іMichaelLazarev.
Captains ably carried by ship to the polar ice of unknown "white spots". With great risk they reached the place where all was solid ice. This powerful ice cover could have formed only on the mainland. Beating around the South Earth, they have caused to map its shores. So in 1820, was opened Antarctica -nayvazhkodostupnishyycontinent that recently found place on the map.
Fig. Route swimming F.Bellingshausenand M. Lazarus
Study of polar latitudes.In the early twentieth century. the turn development of polar latitudes - areas covered with ice around the North and South Pole with severe cold climate.
American Robert Piri, Breaking snows, frosts to terrible??? -600 C and the polar night in 1909, first achievedNorth Pole.
Subsequently NorwegianRual Amundsenheaded for Antarctica. For two months, "IronRual" four friends in the Nart, drawn by dogs, beat Antarctic desert and in 1911 reachedSouth Pole. At the same time as the Amundsen, a somewhat different route to the South Pole bound and EnglishmanRobert Scott.January 18, 1912 he companions reached the Pole, but there already majors Norwegian flag. In depressed British went back. Polar had to beat the miles with great difficulty. Travelers fell from hunger and exhaustion and died one by one. R. Scott died last. Although he failed to reach first Pole, R. Scott certainly deserves to stand in some prominent travelers.
In 1930 Russian expeditionOtto Schmidtstudying the Arctic. Established Islands, underwater ridges and hollow in the Arctic Ocean. Subsequently, the first time in history, breaking the ice icebreaker ships, seas Arctic Ocean could get from Europe to the Far North East. The trail along the northern coast of Asia calledNorth Sea by. After these expeditions A. Schmidt swimming are common.
Fig. Route expeditions R. Amundsen and Robert Scott
Results discoveries.The entire planet to New end time was known, but the interior of Antarctica and World Ocean. Geographical maps acquired precision.Each of the separate parts of the land and water got its name. The mainland to Earth was six: the largest -Eurasia, hottest – Africa, two large continents, outwardly similar to each other -North America і South America, The smallest -Australiaand hindmost -Antarctica.
All this dry earth is divided into six parts World: Asia, Europe, Africa, America, AustraliawithOceania, Antarctica. Dismemberment of the world emerged historically in the course of humanity knowledge of the Earth.
Divide the Earth alsoOld World(Europe, Asia and Africa) andNew World(America). In the New World and Australia do not consider Antarctica, although they discovered much later. This division also has developed historically and was associated with science.
Have names and water of the oceans. He includes four oceans are connected by:Pacific, Atlantic, IndianіArctic.
Question and objectives
1. WhyJames Lousecalled a great sailor?
2. Why GeorgeLysyanskybe called "Ukrainian Magellan?
3. When and what was discovered Antarctica?
4. Who is first reached North Pole?
5. Name, who reached the South Pole?
6. What little practical value Arctic?
7. What were the results of geographical knowledge of the Earth at the end of Modern Times?