§ 5. Daily Age of Discovery
Doba great discoveries.200-year period of XVXVII art. called era of great geographical discoveries, because then received the highest outstanding geographical discoveries in history. This facilitated the development of crafts and commerce in Europe. European explorers told of countless riches of the East and primarilyIndia. Known at the time land Road to the east occupied by the Turks. This prompted the Europeans to explore the ways of the sea. For naval expeditions were to build new, strong enough for distant voyages, sailing vessel - caravels. Improved in compass and marine maps. Then the sea became a bridge in the known lands.
Great sea power at that time wasPortugal. The main organizer of maritime expeditions was Prince Henry, for what it calledHenry NavigatorsAlthough he is nowhere and swam. In 1418 Henry founded Geographical Research Institute, which taught geography. This institution included a school of navigation, Astronomical Observatory, store cards and manuscripts. Of all the Mediterranean Henry invited there different scholars - geographers, cartographers, mathematicians, translators who read by different language manuscripts. Scientists have improved navigation and taught this Portuguese captain.
GlobeBehayma. German scholar MartinBehaymin 1492 created the Globe (Globe translated from Latin means the ball). This model was reduced our planet Earth like a toy.
On globeBehaymawas neither South nor North America (it actually is not half a world away). These and other continents will become later known to Europeans. GlobeBehaymagives us idea of the level of geographical knowledge in the early days of the Great Geographical discoveries.
Fig. Globe MartinBehayma (1492 City)
OpeningBartolomeu Dias і Vasco даGama.From remote areas of Africa and India caravans brought gold, ivory bone, spices and other treasures that Arab traders sold at markets North Africa. Henry the navigator proceeded to get there by sea, in order to Portugal remove interest up this profitable trade. His captains put Top Age of Discovery. They sailed along the western coast of Africa, moving it every time further and further south.
The first who managed in the 1487-1488 biennium to reach the southern tip of Africa, wasBartolomeu Dias. Indian Ocean fleet on his men refused because very tired several months of sailing. SoDiashad reverse. His voyage was the crown of numerous attempts to Portugal ships to the south along Africa and into the Indian Ocean. OpenDiassouthwestern edge of Africa has been namedCape of Good Hope- Hope that soon will open the way to India.
Countryman Dias Vasco даGammacompleted its work. He went into the way in 1497, rounded the southern end of Africa and, moving further along the eastern coast, three weeks passed the Indian Ocean. In 1498 the Portuguese came to coast of India.Sea route to it was open.
Fig. Route swimmingBartolomeo Dias(1487)
Fig. Route swimmingVasco даGama (1497-1498 biennium)
Discovery of America.Neighboring Portugal and Spain tried to find sea routes to India. Italian navigatorChristopher Columbus, Who was serving in the king of Spain, convinced kulyastosti Earth, thought, moving westward across the Atlantic, you can reach India from the east - on the other side of the Earth.
In 1492 expedition H. Columbus traveled from Spain. Monthly mariners crossed the Atlantic Ocean and reached the islands of Central America. Columbus H. was convinced that reached the eastern edge of Asia and India are quite close. Not hesitation, he called his newfound IslandsWest Indies(West Indian) and natives (local people) - Indians. However, in Columbus error crept calculations. None of his knowledge, no maps of that time not given opportunities to imagine that space the Atlantic could hide huge continents.
More three times afterward (1492-1504 biennium) J. Columbus set out on expeditions to open it lands. He discovered many islands and the northern coast of South America. By the end of his days thinking navigator, who visited Asia. October 12 1492, when Columbus first reached the shores of the unknown, say happy birthday America.
There is information that 500 years before Columbus visited the Vikings in America - people of Northern Europe, participated in marine expeditions. In the tenth century.EricRedopenedisland Greenland. A few years later one of the smaller vessels led his son -Leif Erikson- reached the eastern coast of North America. But the opening of the Vikings by except for some northern people, no one knew.
The burden of the discovery of America
Seneca in the literary work (and art. ")MedeaIs the following lines: "float years, and the time will come when Ocean open the door, and open land in it.Thetis(Goddess of the sea) will open a new world andThule(Iceland) does not will be the last edge of land. Columbus died almost forgotten. His fame eventually reduced to mere mention of the explorer who discovered the New World case prophecy by Seneca.Columbianson Fernando wrote on his copy "Medea"The following words:" This prophecy made my father, Christopher Columbus, the year 1492.
Fig. Routes sailings H. Columbus
Open Columbus named the other mainland navigator -Amerigo Vespucci. He also sailed to America, but after Columbus. ButAmerigorealized that is not in Asia, and other unknown lands. He called the New World, because they differed greatly from the world known to Europeans in terms of geographical location, people and culture.
Glory Vespuccibrought his letters home, which He skillfully describes what they see and map new lands. Later cartographers named the new continents named Amerigo. And Colombia was named as one of only South America and only in the nineteenth century.
After Discovery great sea to Europe tried uvirvaty overseas than bigger piece of the New World. In America after Columbus H. rynulysya Spanish conquistadors (translated from Spanish - invasions). Their campaigns accompanied extermination and enslavement of peoples of America have been devastated and robbery lands. This was a quick study and geographical exploration of America by Europeans.
Opening H. Columbian - the major event of the day Age of Discovery. It had far-reaching geographical implications. It was a meeting of two worlds - Old and New. In 1492 two hemispheres, two halves of the Earth are inseparable. Since then startedmutual understanding і interchangeamong all peoples of the world.
Question and objectives
1. What conditions contributed to the onset age of great geographical discoveries?
2. Who created the first globe?
3. What is the significance of swimmingBartolomeu Dias?
4. What are the geographical discoveries madeVasco даGama?
5. Why newfound continents called America, not Columbia?
6. Is it true that Columbus was the first who discovered America?
7. Why Columbian called random?