§ 4. Geography of the Middle Ages
§ 4. Geography
about the world in the Middle Ages.In the Middle Ages (V–ХVcent.) science declined, that the effect on geography.
The spread of religion in Europe made people forget about the scientific achievements of Greek
scientists. Instead, spread such ideas about the Earth, which displays the image of
medieval chronicle. Often they have a fantastic nature and reflect
religious beliefs. Thus,VAnd art. monk from
ConstantinopleKozmaIndykoplovasserted that the earth - flat quadrangle. On
It is a huge mountain, which goes around the Sun. Ironically, this false
opinions existed until XVArt. It was
a giant step backward in development geography.
with those merchants who became wealthy from trading overseas goods and conquerors
who seized new lands, organized more and more travel. They were
inhabitants of geographic informants who satisfy curiosity and
Marco Polo.The first European who made a trip to South Asia, was Marco Polo - son
Italian merchant from Venice. His father carried on trade in Asia and repeatedly
been on the mysterious East. Starting out in 1271 to China Polo took with senior
and a 17 year old Marco. More than 3 years because of the turbulent rivers, high mountains,
Desert got great merchants travelers to China. There they took Khan. That
maintain relations with Europe, he invited Marco Polo intelligently to their
service. This enabled the Italians to make a lot of traveling China. Service
Marco Polo in Khan stretched for 15 years and return home - even at 10! In
He returned to Europe by sea along the coast of Asia. The route of his trip appeared
huge loop, described around South Asia.
home, Traveler, "presented" Europe is seen as a book manuscript on
diversity of worlds. " In it he revealed the real face of the Europeans far,
East Asian unprecedented. Marco Polo was not a geographer or even
suspected the existence of this science. However, his message became a valuable
source of knowledge. Even after 200 years of geographical names in his book cited
on many maps. "Book of Marco Polo translated into numerous languages and published
in different countries. Written over 700 years ago, and today it
Travel Marco Polo (thirteenth century).
pilgrimage - a trip to the holy defined by religion, places - turned
invaluable for educational trips. On a pilgrimage to Muslim holy sitesMedinaandMeccaThat in Saudi Arabia in 1325 he began his wanderings
Arabs from MoroccoIbn Battuta.
He passed through allNorth Africa, Went toMiddle Eastsea
swam toMozambique andZanzibar. His ways
reachedVolgaі Central Asia. SubsequentlyIbn
Battutagot toIndia. He 7 years
lived in Delhi, and, like Marco Polo, served Sultan. He then traveledChina.
Traveler returning home for many years through Southeast Asia. In general
trip lasted 24 years.
Arab traveler who visited Ukraine and on land - inCrimea. Ibn Battutastayed inc.
Kerchand CastleSolhat(Now Old
Crimea). And his greatest hitKafa(Feodosia). Numerous ships have reviewed and
left the port. They carried grain, cloth and fur with Muscovy, the slaves of
Caucasus and the Volga region. Traveler who has seen many ports, Cafu carried to
most important in the world.
memories of the tripIbnTrampolines set out on pages
books"Gift curious about
dyvovyzhi cities and wonders Travels ". Description of China lifted the veil of mystery,
that secret life of Europeans peoples in the East.
TravelIbnTrampolines (XIV century).
Studies.In the medieval geographical knowledge acquired more practical orientation -
stranovedcheskoy. This required the development of trade and shipping.
contemporary scholars in the descriptive form placed everything: the geographical and
biological, and religious and historical, and cultural and economic information
any country. Country
achieved great success. Books, which described a foreign land, were
very popular. Later, from a simple collection of geographical facts scientists
begun to address the links between them.
Medieval chronicles - the source of geographical knowledge
chronicles of Kievan Rus (of XI.) contain geographical information
Ukrainian lands. In the chronicle "Tale of Bygone Years" is about the river
Sea forests. Good Ways "Varangians the Greeks - Commercial
river-sea route that bound the north of Europe from the Mediterranean Sea.
Middle Ages.Maps that were created inSerednovichchiin Europe
researchers believe very simplified and unscientific. They were composed under strong
religious influence and affect its primitiveness. On some maps due to
Mediterranean and even Africa was built road to paradise - Eden!
much more successful in mapping the Arabs reached. FromVIIArt. they extended their power over large
territory. Arab traders knew South Asia, Eastern Europe, crossed
Africa. Arabic was translated works of ancient Greeks, in particularPtolemy. The Arabs created the "Atlas of the Muslim world, which
vmischuvav 21 maps. Thus, inVII-XII centuries. center of geographical knowledge has shifted from
Europe to Asia. The Arabs kept the idea of ancient geography for future generations
and greatly expanded information about Africa and Asia.
the Bible, Eden in medieval maps placed between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers -
rivers, whichallegedlyomyvaly it. Interests
earthly paradise among many devout people were so keen that remained to
fairly recently, despite progress in mapping the world picture. In 1666
, the map was published, where the earthly paradise was placed in Armenia, and on the map
1882 he was in the Seychelles.
Questions and Tasks
1. Have had the ancient knowledge development
scientists on Earth in the form of the Middle Ages?
2. What geographic information
enriched understanding of the world of Marco Polo?
What value should Geographic TravelIbn Battuty?
Why geography of the Middle Ages has become local lore?
What are the specific features making maps in medieval Europe?
Where and why in the Middle Ages shifted center of scientific mapping?
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