The human race the world and the most numerous peoples. Placement of the population (compendium)

A collection of people who live around the globe, called mankind, population, or simply population. Population is a subject of study of many sciences, one of which is demography (in Greek - "description of people"), studying the processes of the size, population composition, and especially its location.

Consensus regarding the rise of humanity on Earth today. However, most scientists believe that human ancestors appeared about 2 million years ago and the man of modern type - only 40 thousand years ago. Modern science claims that the first humans appeared in Africa. It was settled by people from here all the continents except Antarctica. Oselyayuchys in a particular area, groups of people for a long time under the influence of changing environmental conditions, forming their own appearance, temperament, character and other features. It formed the main group of people - the human race. There are four main races: european, Mongoloid, and avstraloyidnu negro. Some scientists unite nehroyidiv avstraloyidiv and one equatorial race.

European race formed the indigenous peoples of Europe, Middle East and North Africa. Even in ancient times inhabited yevropeoyidy Central and South Asia, and later - America and Australia. For an yevropeoyidiv mostly light color, smooth or slightly wavy straight hair, narrow nose, thin lips. By european race is almost half of humanity. All Slavs, including Ukrainian, is yevropeoyidamy.

Ethnic Mongoloid race formed in the vast spaces of Asia, and settled in North and South America, the Pacific Islands. It includes almost 40% of the world's population. Characteristic features of anthropometric Mongoloid is a yellowish color, black straight hair, narrow eyes, wide nose, ploskuvate face.

Negro race formed pryekvatorialni peoples of Africa. In nehroyidiv dark skin, black curly hair, dark brown eyes, wide nose, thick lips. Pelage on the body are poorly developed.

Avstraloyidiv nehroyidiv distinguish from the lighter color of eyes and wavy hair. This race is indigenous peoples of Australia and surrounding islands (the Aborigines). Unlike other races, race avstraloyidna not spread and has gained the least numerous, and even endangered species.

As a result of moving beyond the native habitats of different races and formed the transitional mixed race. Scientists have long proved the equality of all races. A significant contribution to the theory of equality of races introduced Nikolai Miklukho-Maklai, who dedicated his life to studying the peoples that inhabit the tropical Pacific islands. In 1870-1883 years he lived among the Papuans of New Guinea, cultural development, which is completely different from European standards. The natives lived in the Stone Age. Studied their lives, M.Mykluho-Maklai concluded that these same people are capable of mental development, learning and art, like any other nation on Earth. A deficiency of these people is due above all a great distance from their residence centers centers of civilization.

Under some assumptions, even 15 thousand years ago lived on Earth just 3 million people. At the beginning of our era the world's population increased to 250 million people. History of ancient world know that even in ancient alliances with the tribes of the first people there. They lived in slaveholding states in Africa and Eurasia. Today, more than 2 thousand different people. The largest is the Chinese people - they are more than 1 billion at the same time are people whose number does not exceed a few hundred members. In Ukraine, for example, such are the enemies - a small nation in the Crimea.

The growth of the global population each year is accelerating. If the first millennium BC's population grew by 25 million people, then for the second millennium, mankind has increased to 6 billion people. This is due to the fact that he learned to produce the necessary quantity of food, and the development of science, especially medicine, contributed to overcoming many diseases, also significantly improved living conditions of people. This effect on life expectancy, child mortality and the corresponding increase in population. Especially rapid population grew from 50 years of the twentieth century. During this period there was a so-called population explosion. Over the past 40 years global population has doubled. This rapid population growth was mainly due to increasing number of people in Asia, Africa and Latin America. This is to improve living conditions in these countries and national traditions of a large family.

Most of the world's population accounted for 20 large nations, whose number exceeds 50 million These primarily include Chinese hindustantsi Americans U.S. benhaltsi, Brazilians, Russians, Japanese, Mexicans, Germans, Vietnameses, Turks, Iranians, Britons, Frenchmen, Italians.

Today, the world's population exceeds 6.5 billion, but posted it unevenly across different natural climatic and historical factors. Most people live in the south and south-east Asia and in Western and Central Europe. These areas account for 70% of the planet. And the two countries, China and India account for over one third of earth. Resident population not only in Antarctica: in extremely harsh natural conditions are only here temporarily staff research stations.