Soil - a top layer of loose rocks, transformed by common action components and non-living wildlife (solar heat, air, water, plants, animals, bacteria). Rocks (sand, clay, loess) play a significant role in soil is called bedrock.
The main component of soil is humus (humus), which determines soil fertility - the powerful content of humus, the soil rodyuchishyy.
A variety of factors determine soil extraordinary diversity of soils, which comprise hundreds of species. The basis of their classification is based on differences in soil structure, composition, color, capacity humus layer.
The most important factors include the distribution of soil heat and moisture, because every natural area corresponding to certain types of soils. Thus, the most common red-yellow soil moist equatorial forests formed under the influence of considerable heat and moisture. Further from the equator they vary if formed of alternating red soil moisture. In the deserts of gray and brown desert soils are formed under the influence of excessive heat and insufficient moisture. They actually do not have humus and because agriculture is possible only with artificial hydration (oases) or along river valleys, which formed a special intrazonalni soils - alluvial river valleys. Further, under the influence of different ratio of heat and moisture, alternately, go gray forest, podzol soil, etc.. Most fertile soil on earth is black, that is one of the greatest treasures of our state.
The soil can vary greatly influenced by human activity. There are many examples where due to irresponsible human activities on the site of former fertile lands arose career, piles, dumps, etc.. This is designed to prevent land restoration (restoration of damaged lands) and a comprehensive approach is to consider all the possible consequences for the environment, which can cause economic activity of man.