MAIN FORMS OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE IS PLAIN AND MOUNTAINS (compendium)

Plains - a land area having a flat surface. The plains are divided into lowland and Hills.

lowlands are mapped in green hills and yellow and light brown.

In northern Ukraine, located Woodland Lowland. The surface of waterlogged, mostly from the low increase - hills. To the northeast it continues Dnieper Lowland. Its hilly area with lots of ravines and gorges. Because of this surface appears wavy. South of Ukraine took the Black Sea Lowland.

In Ukraine there are hills: Volyn, Podolsky, Dnieper, Donetsk and Priazovskaya. It is also plain. But they sometimes increase reaches about 500 meters prone ravines and beams.

So, on the plains is hills, ravines and beams.

Yar - a large hollow with steep slopes on the Earth.

how it formed? Melt or rain water on hill slopes or sloping terrain flowing stream. From that first formed on the basis of a small furrow. Over the years she hlybshaye and becomes a ravine.

Through many years of steep ravines overgrown with plants and converted into ravines beams.

Mountain - this land surface, is lifted up over the plains.

isolated mountains on Earth are rare. Often they extend series. A number of mountains called ridge. between mountain ranges is a picturesque valley, flowing turbulent mountain rivers.

Depending on the height of the mountain are low, medium and high. is a low mountain height from 500 to 800 m high mountain altitude - from 800 to 2000 meters high mountains over 2000 meters high are called.

In the western part of Ukraine stretched Carpathian Mountains. For they are the average height of mountains with rounded tops. Only the highest peak of the Carpathians - Goverla - has a height of 2061 meters

arc on the Crimean Peninsula the Crimean Mountains rise. their highest peak - Mount Roman-Kosh - a height of 1545


sources, rivers, lakes, swamps, seas, ponds and reservoir - a reservoir land. If they occurred in nature, called natural , created by man - artificial.

Source - a place where ground water flows underground.

Some rain and melt water seeps into the ground. It easily passes through the soil and sand, but clay is delayed. It is collected in underground lakes. In areas where clay suitable for earth, water flows to the surface. Sources are formed on the bottom of ravines, gullies, on slopes of hills, steep river banks. Spring water is cold and clean. Because it passes through a layer of sand and is cleaned of impurities.


Rivers Ukraine

Each river has leak - where it starts. Source can be a source, a lake, swamp or glaciers in the mountains. Some streams merge and give rise to a river. On its way it takes the water of other rivers - its tributaries. Holes on which river is called streambed. The place where the river empties into another body of water - this is her mouth. Rivers flowing into lakes, seas, oceans and other rivers.

Each river has a left and right. To define them, you become a face in the direction of flow. To the right is the right bank and left - left.

One of the great plains of the rivers of Ukraine is the Dnipro . largest of its tributaries - Pripyat, gums, Psel, Vorskla, Samara. Sky originates in Russia, flowing through Belarus. But it is the widest and longest in Ukraine. Carries its majestic Dnipro water from north to south. The banks of the Dnieper and its tributaries is extremely picturesque.

the south of our country ends its journey flowing river Danube . It crosses on the way many European countries.

Dniester rises in the Carpathians. It flows through the western part of Ukraine. During rains or melting snows in the mountains, this mountain river becomes very rough and out of banks.

The large rivers of Ukraine are also Southern Bug and Seversky Donets.


Lakes and swamps Ukraine

Lake - water that occurs in the natural recesses of the earth '.

Lakes are large and small, deep and shallow, with fresh or salt water. With running water from lakes, and closed to - just come. The lakes are replenished with water of rivers, underground springs, rain and melt water.

In Ukraine, about 20 thousand lakes. They form a lake edges. The richest at Woodland Lakes Lowland. Here is the famous Shatsky Lakes, and among them - Lake Svitiaz.

Carpathian mountains in most lakes are small but deep. The water in them fresh, clean and cold. Mountain Lake striking beauty. Especially famous lake Synevir.

at Podolsk Upland small and shallow lakes. In summer they are well warmed up. Near them grow various plants and animals live.

Many lakes formed by the river Danube. The largest fresh water lakes among them - Yalpug, and deepest - Cahul.

along the Black Sea are lakes, estuaries with salt water. Salt lake rich in Crimea. The best known - Sivash lake from which salt is extracted. Many Crimean lakes dry up in summer.

Gradually lakes, especially shallow, zamulyuyutsya, overgrown plants and eventually turn into swamps.

Marsh - too damp area of the Earth's surface. It hygrophilous plants grow.

the bog and can transform a plot of land where water stagnates after rains flood the rivers, the melting snow.

In Ukraine, the largest wetlands on Polisskiy lowlands.


Sea - is part of the ocean, a fighter in the land.

All sea connected to the oceans. Water in seas salted bitter.

the South Ukraine is washed by the sea. In the southwest - the Sea of Azov. This Sea Atlantic Ocean.

Black Sea is connected to the Azov Sea Kerch Strait. Black Sea deep and warm, its average depth of 1256 m, and most - the summer of 2245 the water temperature is 22 ° ... 25 ° C in winter and 6 ° ... 8 ° C. In the Black Sea flow into almost all the major rivers of Ukraine.

Azov Sea less than Black. It is very shallow. Its maximum depth - 15 m. In the summer in the Azov Sea water is heated to 30 ° C but in winter it freezes.