Resources ocean (compendium)

Oceans is a source of vital human resources: biological, chemical, energy, etc.. Biological resources consist of fish, shellfish (oysters, mussels, etc.), crustaceans (crabs, lobsters, shrimp, etc.), marine mammals (whales, walruses, seals) and some algae (kelp, helidium). Most rich in industrially are coastal (offshore) parts of the seas and oceans.

on the bottom of the ocean bottom and under a lot of potential mineral resources, including oil and gas, sulfur, building materials, iron-manganese nodules and phosphorites. Most important of these is oil. Whole world knows about 400 oil and gas, half of which is on the shelf and continental slope. Extraction of marine oil is growing fast. According to projections, future naval wells will give a third of its oil.

iron-manganese nodules are similar to the spherical formation of oxide and hydroxide of iron and manganese with concentric internal structure. In diameter they range from 1 to 20 cm They can also be represented as kirok bottom of volcanic rocks. Whatever type of iron-manganese deposits they are formed by chemical precipitate these elements of ocean waters. Many concretions contain high levels of nickel, copper, cobalt, which can be used in industry.

phosphorites nodules occur mostly on continental margins. They are formed from the remnants of animal organisms, preserved in the solid and unconsolidated sedimentary rocks of organic origin.

sediments, so-called red clay, formed on the ocean floor sediment rich in iron oxides and clay minerals mining remains loose material that is brought into the ocean from continents rivers, winds, glaciers.

Some ocean mineral resources already in use, while others await the time when these are exhausted sources of raw materials on land.

to mineral resources of the oceans are also included resources that are in sea water: salt, magnesium, bromine, gold and other items.

Energy resources of the oceans:

  • energy and ebb tides;
  • energy of ocean currents;
  • sea surf energy;
  • energy and surface temperature difference deep water.

Among the most used energy resources and energy of tidal ebb. Construction of tidal power stations (SES) is possible in narrow and long bays, where the height of tidal waves reaches ten and more meters (France, Great Britain, Russia, Canada, USA, Norway, Argentina and others).

Oceanic and sea coasts of many countries are widely used as recreational resources of the oceans.