§ 2. Prominent economic geography of the world. (textbook)

§ 2. Prominent economic geography of the world

 

1.    Remember any of the scientists believe the founder of Ukrainian geography.

2.    Name geographers who have made a significant contribution to the economic and Social Geography of Ukraine.

 

Each Science is proud names of scientists, researchers, who by their hard work shaping its public image, bring social prestige. Development socio-economic geography in different countries manifests itself in different ways: formed during the last century national schools: French, German, British, Russian, American. Famous names of Ukrainian and world economic geographers.

SCIENTIFIC COLLEGE OF EUROPE. Great contribution to the socio-economic geography of the world did German scientists. One of the founders of modern Western geography are Charles Ritter (1779–1859).


He considered the Earth as a "common home of mankind, revealing the geographical features of the relationship of man and nature. The scientist studied the geographical location, configuration, size and interposition countries, trying to find spatial patterns. K. Ritter founded the German Geographical Society. Founder antropoheohrafiyi and consider geopolitics Friedrich Rattselya (1844–1904). 


He advocated this idea: the state is the body that develops, grows old and dies. Laws of this development depend on geographic factors. Ideology F. Rattselya based on evolution and Darwinism. The principle of survival of the fittest he endured at the state and people. 


Walter Krystaller (1893-1969) - author of the theory of central places, according to which there is an optimal skeleton-network structure of settlements, which provides access to the objects of human services, the fastest moving between cities and effective territory management. "Grid Krystallera"- One of the first models of spatial organization of society, which is widely used in advanced research. 
 


August Losha (1906-1945), armed with the theory of central places, formulated the concept of the economic landscape - a market equilibrium model in which the determining factor is the area of marketing companies that form a network with nodes of economic regions in cities (ideal form of such a network scientist believed hexagonal honeycombs) . Ideas of German scientists led the development of economic geography in the world to dozens and even hundreds of years, their scientific achievements have been successfully applied today.

 

Among prominent British geographers should be mentioned Halford Message was (1861-1947), who introduced the concept of "Heartland- Medullary land that is actively used in modern geopolitics.

 

Most noticeable figure among French geographers - Elise The ads (1830-1905). He was a brilliant krayinoznavtsem: Visited almost all countries of the world and wrote 19 - languishing work "Earth and People", which had once claimed to complete geographical description of the world. Each volume had a volume of about 900 pages, contains numerous maps, drawings, designs (scientist worked on it in 1920 years). Ukrainian scientist Michael Drahomanov at the request of E. The ads wrote to 7 as part of Ukraine.

 

From late nineteenth Art. was formed and the Ukrainian national geography. Gained world fame Ukrainian scientist Stephen Rudnitsky (1877–1937). He  made major contributions to social geography, domestic political geography and geopolitics: geopolitical specifics revealed Ukraine's position as justified its place among the nations of Eurasia and the world showed necessity of the Baltic-Black Sea Union countries with the participation Ukraine. His ideas and concepts have not lost their relevance. Name Vladimir Kubiiovych (1900–1985)concerned with research in human geography. Victor Yurkivs'ka(1927-2004) - professor, known in Ukraine and abroad krayinoznavets, author  "Regional economic and social geography of foreign countries, "Guide" Countries "; Boris Yatsenko (B. 1942) - is not only in Ukraine geographer-orientalist, scholar with the encyclopedic erudition, the author of "Political Geography", "Economic geography of foreign countries', chief author of the school textbook on economic and social geography of foreign countries, which is at this stage Art.

 

A distinguished scientist encyclopedist

Ukrainian geographer Stephen Rudnitsky graduated university city, Vienna (Austria) and Berlin (Germany). He was not only scientists encyclopedist, but also a polyglot: he wrote his works not only Ukrainian, but also German, Polish, Czech, Russian and others. His books published in Austria, Germany, Sweden, USA, Italy, France, Hungary, Romania, Switzerland. Our compatriot was a member of many European Geographical Society.

 

Russian scientific school. Russian economic geographers have left a deep mark on the history and geographical science continue to work on solving urgent problems of modern times.

 

John Witwer (1891-1966) - the full right to believe founder of the Soviet scientific school socio-economic geography of foreign World and Regional Geography. He - the author of textbooks on economic geography foreign countries which were repeatedly reprinted and "desktop" book several generations. Vladimir Maksakovskyy (nar. 1924)- One of the leading krayinoznavtsiv, A developer and researcher of geographic structure culture, which, in his view, consists of several components: geographic picture of the world, geographical thinking, methods of geography, language, geography.

 

Anglo-American scientific school. In the mid-nineteenth century. in full force yourself affirms another branch of the World geographic thought - the United States. World fame came the National Journal Geographic Society "National geographic Magazine"(National Geographic magazine), founded in 1888 Currently under name "National geographic"He" crossed "state borders and become on the phenomenon of global geographic culture.

Geography in the United States and Canada since the origin has a clear practical skerovanist. In 1950's of the USA was launched in school regional science - synthesis geography and economics. Its founder - Walter Izard (B. 1919) stressed the strengthening of regional approach to study the problems of economic and social development, directed research efforts to develop new methods of research and creation modern theory of productive forces.

Representative new generation of scientists who combine economic and geographic approaches to the study problems of the world economy is Paul Krugman(B. 1953), who analyzed the pattern of international trade and developed new principles of economic geography. The scientist investigated the mechanism of action in a modern economy especially in international trade, the principle of increasing profits, "according to which costs per unit of output decrease with increasing scale. Scientific fact "discovered" a qualitatively new position of economic geography as a science. "Opening" was so unexpected and important that is in use the term "new economic geography. " According to these studies of P.Krugmanawarded the Nobel Prize in 2008

 

Question and objectives

1.    Tell us about the research of German scientists in the field of socio-economic geography of the world.

2.    What contribution to the development of socio-economic geography of the world did the French scientist Elise The ads?

3.    Scientists whose names are linked to development socio-economic geography of the world in Ukraine?

4.    What do you know about the economic and geographic Research VP Krugman?

5.    Using additional sources information, prepare reports one of the outstanding economic geographers.

 

Bookshelf

1. Geographer, academician Stepan Rudnitsky: Prominent figures Ternopil / Bumping. I. Ditchuk. - Ternopol: Educational book - Bogdan, 2007.

2. James P., Martin J. All Possible myrы. - Moscow: Progress, 1988.

3. Krugman P., Obstfeld M. INTERNATIONAL ECONOMY. Theory s politics. - M.: MSU-Unit, 1997.

4. Mukytanov N. K. Ot Strabon our days. - Moscow: Thought, 1985.

5. Shablya O. I. Academician Stepan Rudnytsky - founder of Ukrainian geography. - Lions-Munich: Lions. State. University, 1993.

 

Search the web

1. http://uk.wikipedia.org/wiki

2. http://geosite.com.ua

3. http://www.vokrugsveta.ru/encyclopedia

4. http://news.yandex.ru/people/krugman_pol.html