Employment in some sectors of the economy is defined as a percentage of the economically active population (employees), which represented part of the working population directly engaged in social production . In most industrialized countries the working population to include people who have reached 15 years, while in developing countries, this limit starts from 12-14 years, and in some African countries - even the age of six.
employment structure reflects the economic structure and level of socio-economic development. The main trend in the employment structure in the world is an increase in employment in service industries at the expense of the material employed in manufacturing. Instead of agrarian and industrial eras coming post-industrial, which is characterized by a steady increase in the role of non-production areas and transforms it into a home in the world economy.
In developed countries the share of population employed in industrial sectors of the economy, ranging from 35 to 40% and the share of workers in agriculture and related fields constantly decreases (5-20%). At the same time the number of employees in non-production environments, particularly in trade, financial, banking and administrative activity is 50%, and the Group of Seven countries - 70%.
In most developing countries, in the employment structure has dominated the share of agriculture, represented less than the service sector, the least - industrial sector. This is the nature of agrarian economies and low labor productivity in agriculture, which mainly develops extensive way, as well as the proliferation of petty trading.
in rich countries naftoeksporterah, wealthy resort island countries and newly industrialized countries employment structure similar to the structure of employment in developed countries (70% of workers employed in services).
Post-socialist countries in the industries employing up to 40% in agriculture and related industries - 20% of employees. In non-production sphere occupy about 30%, but unlike most developed countries there is in educational, health and culture. At the same time as banking, trade and administrative areas are under development. Thus, the structure of employment can be considered one of the key indicators of development and use of its characteristics.
Unemployed - is part of the working age population not involved in the areas of tangible and intangible production, looking for work.
unemployment in developed countries ranges from 2 to 12%. Unemployment here is usually a temporary phenomenon associated with finding jobs by preferred specialty or in connection with job training. A well-developed system of social protection and retraining allows unemployed find jobs quickly.
In transition countries the unemployment rate varies from 4% (Czech Republic, Hungary) and to 9% (CIS). With the transition to market economies, these countries also began to actively introduce yourself in the employment service to create a civilized labor market and reduce social tensions.
For many developing countries, are characterized by massive unemployment, causing emigration of young people in more developed countries.
in the poorest African countries, population is mainly engaged in the natural economy, providing a livelihood. It lacks a system for the unemployed, training and retraining of workers and civilized labor market. Because accurate data on the extent of unemployment there are missing.