Employment in certain sectors of the economy is defined as a percentage of the economically active population (employees), which represented part of the working population directly engaged in social production . In most industrialized countries the working population to include people who have reached 15 years. In developing countries, this limit starts from 12-14 years, and in some African countries - even with six years of age.
employment structure reflects the economic structure and level of socio-economic development. The main trend in the employment structure in the world is an increase in employment in service industries at the expense of the material employed in manufacturing. Instead of agrarian and industrial eras coming post-industrial, which is characterized by a steady increase in the role of non-production areas and transforms it into a home in the world economy.
In developed countries the share of population employed in industrial sectors of the economy, ranging from 35 to 40% and the share of workers in agriculture and related fields constantly decreases (5-20%). At the same time the number of employees in non-production environments, particularly in the commercial and financial, banking and administrative activity is 50%, and the Group of Seven countries - 70%.
In most developing countries, in the employment structure has dominated the share of agriculture, represented less than the service sector, the least - industrial sector. This is the nature of agrarian economies and low labor productivity in agriculture, which mainly develops extensive way, as well as the proliferation of petty trading.
in rich countries naftoeksporterah, wealthy resort island countries and newly industrialized countries employment structure similar to the structure of employment in developed countries (70% of workers employed in services).
Post-socialist countries in the industries employing up to 40% in agriculture and related industries - 20% of employees. In non-production sphere occupy about 30%, but unlike most developed countries there is in educational, health and culture. At the same time as banking, trade and administrative areas are under development. Thus the structure of employment can be considered one of the key indicators of development and use of its characteristics.