§ 38. New industrially-developed countries. (textbook)

§ 38. New industrially-developed countries.

Remember

?

  1. Which group can be divided country belonging to the newly industrialized countries of the world?
  2. What features characterize the new industrial countries of the world?
  3. What are the historical features of newly industrialized countries is their common?


South Korea

Business Card

Area: 98.5 km2

Population:48 509 000 (2010)

CapitalSeoul

Official name: Republic of Korea

Political System: Parliamentary republic

Legislature: Unicameral National Assembly

President: President

Administrative structure: Unitary country (nine provinces and six cities under central authority)

Common religion: Buddhism, Confucianism, Christianity (Protestant)

Member UN

National Holiday: Proclamation of the Republic (September 9), National Foundation Day (October 3)

EGP and natural resources potential. State located in Eastern Asia, the Korean peninsula, washed  Japan and the Yellow Sea, bordered by North Korea 38th parallel, a marine borders with China and Japan. Most also support close ties with Western countries and the USA. The country's government tries to expand foreign ties and economic cooperation with North Korea. The surface of the country represented by low hills, wide valleys and ridges and Thebek Konsan, the highest point of the country Hallasan H. (1950 m.) is located in the island  part. Coniferous-deciduous forests cover 2 / 3 of the country. Winter dry  cold and summers hot and humid. Average temperatures range from  -90C in winter to 290C in summer.

In the depths of the country has deposits of coal, iron and manganese ore, copper, lead, zinc, nickel, tin, tungsten, molybdenum, uranium, gold, silver, thorium, asbestos, graphite, mica, salt, kaolin, limestone,  but not own the mineral base for economic development.

Population countries by almost 99.8% consists of Koreans are the 20000th Chinese community, the official language - Korean. Population density 490 people. km2. The urban population is about 81%.  Before World War II met many Koreans migrated to China, Japan and the USSR. About 3.3 million people. returned to country after 1945. About 2 million Koreans fled to Korea People's Democratic Republic to the Republic of Korea. Largest cities Seoul, Suwon, Daejeon, Gwangju, Busan, Ulsan, Daegu.

Seoul, The capital of the republic, the largest transport node (Kympo International Airport, Incheon seaport), cultural, scientific, financial and economic center of the country, one of the most densely populated cities in the world.

The first city mentioned in the I century. BC, in the XIV century. called Hanyan, modern name, which means "capital" city received in 1948 after announcement of its capital of South Korea.

At the Incheon city's economy accounts for about 50% of industrial producing country. There are enterprises in light industry, textile, automotive, electronic, chemical, cement, paper, rubber, leather, ceramic industry. Developed metallurgy, engineering. In 1974 built underground. Planning the city in some parts very dependent on the hilly relief. Some areas of the old city built on modern high-rise buildings.

Located in Seoul Academy of Sciences, Academy of Art, Seoul National University, Korea University, universities and Hanyan Sohan, National Museum, theater, traditional dance, drama and Opera House.

Economy country occupies the 12th place in the world GDP. Developed knowledge-intensive engineering, electronics. Large-scale U.S., Japanese and Western European investment country owes polityktsi economic openness for foreign investors (since 1979). Since the late 80-ies Korean companies own conglomerates - the world's known concerns «Samsung», LG and others have to compete with Western multinationals companies. GNP per capita is about $ 18,000. Industry. Industry provides 25% of GDP, it  occupied a quarter of the workforce. Most businesses - small, family row, a small number of firms represented in National Stock Exchange. About 20 major companies to produce thirds of all industrial output. Industrial production of Korea shifted from textiles to electronic, electrical goods, machinery, ships, oil products and steel.

Mining industry industry busy developments graphite deposits, mining of kaolin, tungsten and low-grade coal used in power generation. Economy Republic of Korea as the Japanese economy, there is evidence that many  country can be brought raw material through.

Agriculture is a small percentage of GDP  but all provide people with food and it creates residues that are exported. In it occupied part of the seventh working population. After the land reform in 1948 a significant portion of large farms have been restructured, now here is dominated by small family farms obroblyuyut almost one fifth of the country. Half of the irrigated lands. Government buys most of the harvest for stable prices.

The basic culture - Rice (makes 2 / 5 of all values products industry). In addition to rice grown barley, wheat, soy, potatoes, vegetables, cotton, tobacco. Developed horticulture, cultivation Ginseng, fishing catch seafood industry provides fully population, and excess fish and seafood exports). On family farms raised pigs and cattle.

Transport. Tonnage commercial sea fleet country is more than 12 million dwt. The main seaports are Busan, Ulsan, Inchon. In the middle of the country for shipping rivers are also used. Rail transport developed much worse than the car, the length of road which is 7 and 60 km. respectively. In Seoul and Pusan

Foreign economic relations. The main country's foreign trade partners are the U.S., Japan, the South-East Asia. Exporting countries products manufacturing industries  - Transport equipment, electrical engineering, automobiles, ships, chemicals, footwear, textiles, agricultural products. Oil and Imports petroleum products, fertilizers, machine building, food.

Singapore

Business Card

Area: 647.5 km2

Population:4 658 000 (2010)

CapitalSingapore

Official name: Republic of Singapore

Political System: Republic

Legislature: Unicameral Parliament

President: President (elected for 6 years)

Administrative structure: Unitary republic

Common religion: Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism

Member UN, ASEAN, since 1965 part of the Commonwealth

National Holiday: Independence Day (29 August)

EGP and natural resources potential. Singapore state in Southeast Asia, on the island. Singapore and the surrounding 58 small islands near the southern peninsula Malacca. The largest treasure island feel comfortable in deep-water harbor south-eastern part of it. From the north island of Singapore separated from Malaysia Johor Strait width about 1 km, the banks which are connected by a dam. From Indonesia separated in the west of the Straits of Malacca. Relief the island is flat, low-lying coasts significantly Wetlands are a significant number of bays type estuaries. On south-west cluster of coral reefs. The highest point of the island hill Bukittimah (177 m).

Climate equatorial monsoon with no clearly pronounced seasons. Temperatures are constant throughout the year from 26 to   280C. High humidity and rains occur throughout the year, to  2440 mm rainfall per year. Monsoon season lasts from November to February. The islands are the remnants of tropical rain forests, mangrove shrubs rest of migratory birds that migrate. There No mineral deposits, even potable water running water supplied by neighboring Malaysia and only on the shelf near the Malacca peninsula deposits of oil and natural gas.

Population. Almost the entire population lives in its capital - the city of Singapore, but it is on an island a few settlements.

Natives of mainly southern provinces in China make up 77.4% population, 14.2% Malays, 7.2% - 1.2% Indians and natives Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Europe. Almost a third of the population Buddhist, the fifth - Confucianism is Christianity, Islam, Hinduism.

Singapore - One of the most densely populated countries world with a density of more than 4884 people. per km2. Singapore, Singapore capital of the homonymous state. Located at lowland rivers of the coastal territory Kalanh and Singapore in the south coast of the island of Singapore and the surrounding small islands of Singapore Strait. From Malacca peninsula bound iron and highway.

Singapore city was named in 1299 (translated from Sanskrit -  "Lion City"). Thanks to its favorable location on the island of Singapore,  the city became a crossroads of maritime roads traders from India, China, Siam (Thailand) and the Indonesian state. In times of its history the city repeatedly destroyed and rozhrabovuvalosya yavantsyamy and Portuguese. From  1824 Singapore was recognized possessions of England and more than a century served its main naval base and trade as the "Oriental  the crown jewel. "

In 1959 Singapore became the capital of "self-state" of Singapore, and from December 1965 the capital of the independent Republic of Singapore.

Singapore consists of several areas that contrast with each one: the central or colonial and business quarters, Chinatown and Little India, Malay region.

Today Singapore is one of the largest commercial, industrial, financial and transportation center of Southeast Asia, one of the world's largest port handling capacity of over 400 million tons per year; here Chang has an international airport, Singapore Currency Exchange fourth in the world after London, New York and Tokyo, the largest Southeast Asia Centre for e-industry. The city is working metalworking, electrical engineering, shipbuilding and ship-repair enterprise. Petroleum industry city recycles more than 20 million  tons of crude oil per year. Developed as chemical, food, textile, light industry, primary processing of rubber and other agricultural raw materials. The city has about 135 large banks, one of the world's largest rubber Exchange.

Singapore considerable scientific and cultural center of Asia. In Singapore  University, founded in 1949 is the economic center Studies are also in Nanyanskyy University, Polytechnic Institute, Technical College, Institute for the Study of Southeast Asia, Institute of Architecture, scientific societies and associations. National Library, founded in 1884 has over 520 thousand volumes.

The city is the National and art museums, museums philately, Navy, Memorials of World War II, national theater, concert hall "Victoria" Drama Center, numerous theaters and cinemas, Chinese street opera "Vayanh" botanical garden with a garden of orchids, sea aquarium, birds and reptiles Park and Zoo, numerous memorials Architecture, Hindu, Confucian, Buddhist, Buddhist temples and Muslim mosques.

In the north-eastern part is constructed so-called "city of the XXI century". The islands of the new port of Jurong West created a large refinery. At Singapore there are several small islands one of which, Sentosa Island became a resort area of

Economy. Country - one of the largest commercial, industrial, financial and transportation center Southeast Asian economic fundamentals which are traditional foreign trade operations (mainly re-exports) and export industries that operate on imported raw materials. Singapore is the largest investor in Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam. In terms of investments it second only to Japan.

Government of the country was vigorous measures to encourage economic development: given the substantial tax benefits, industry, company which produced export products; introduced incentives for  investors in industrial production and exports. In the 1990s Singapore is one of the largest regional and international centers trade, finance, marketing and developing technologies. In terms  computerization, he entered the second in Asia after Japan.

Industry. Industrial enterprises of the country working on imported raw materials. Made from products brought raw material often imported. There are companies metalworking, electrical, electronic, opto-mechanical, aeronautical, steel, shipbuilding and ship repair, oil, chemical, food, textile, light industries. Singapore ranks second place in the world (after USA) manufacture of mobile equipment for borehole oilfield marine shlfu, second place (after Hong Kong) Processing sea

Agriculture occupies a minor place in total output. Sesquiterpene coconut palm, kauchukonosnu  Geva, spices, tobacco, pineapple, vegetables, fruits. Developing pig,  poultry, fisheries and marine fisheries.

Transport. Singapore - one of the largest (second  in world cargo turnover) ports in the world. Length 83 km of railways, highways over 3 km. Tonnage marine merchant marine 6,900,000 gross register tons. Airport belongs to Chang best in the world in terms of quality and efficiency of service passengers. It takes up to 36 million passengers a year on its territory located more than 100 shops, 60 restaurants, large swimming pool and several Free Cinema, 200 areas with free Internet access World Wide Web and the largest in Asia Art Gallery.

Foreign economic relations. The country exports office equipment, petroleum products, TV and radio. Significant funds received economy by selling exotic fish and orchids. Main foreign trade partners: U.S., Japan, Malaysia and others.

Location at the crossroads of trade routes from Europe States to the Far East contributed to the growth of Singapore and transforming it into the largest port re-export trade Southeast Asia. Today, the re-export operations accounted almost 30% of foreign trade. This financial and investment center worldwide. Large international center of commerce and industry exhibitions.

Imports consist of food necessary for the country (up to 90% needs of the country). We construct extra water from Indonesia. Annually country visits over 8 million tourists, bringing considerable income country.

Taiwan (as a state not recognized by Ukraine)

Business Card

Area: 36.18 km2

Population: 22.7 million people.

Capital: Taipei

Official name: Taiwan Republic

Political System: Republic

Legislature: National Assembly

President: President (elected for 4 years)

Administrative structure: A unitary state

Common religion: Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism

Member UN

National Holiday: Day of Taiwan (October 10)

EGP and natural resources potential. Territory country consists of the island Taiwan archipelago Penhuledao (Peskadorski Islands), islands of Jinmen, Mazu islands, Paratselskyh Islands, Spratly and Pratas. More than half of the territory are  Mountain is an active volcano, often earthquakes. Flat areas islands are covered with moist tropical forest wood which is an important natural resources.

Climate from subtropical to tropical monsoonal with temperature from 15 to 280p. falls each year 1500 - 5000 mm  precipitation. During July to September there are typhoons. With mineral resources are oil, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, limestone, marble. Population 98% of the country consists of Chinese, indigenous population of the islands - hoashan is 1.5%. The most common and  officially recognized religion of Buddhism is also popular Taoism, Protestantism, Catholicism, Islam.

Largest cities: Taipei, Kaohsiung, Taichung, Tainan. Taipei, the largest city on the island of Taiwan, the administrative center Taiwan Province, the capital of the country's largest industrial and cultural Centre in running enterprises of metallurgy and machine building (Manufacture of electronic calculators, tape recorders, televisions, computers), cement, chemical, woodworking, food industry. It was built maritime outport Jilong, international Taoyuan airport and Sunshan. The main city of Taipei in Taiwan was in 1956 In 2004 he built here was the highest skyscraper "Taipei-101 '(509 m, 101 floor), which became the world's tallest building. The lower floors of tower designated for restaurants and shops, and offices under the top. That's it nayshvidkisni working elevators in the world with which only 39 seconds You can climb the 88 floor of the observation platform.

Economy. Programs combining into a single country nominate and Taiwan, and China, but significant differences between the two countries  prevent this.

Since the late 1980s of the last century renewed travel developing cultural, scientific and personal ties between citizens of two parts of China. Since the 90s of last century began to develop rapidly economic and cultural contacts between Taiwan and Mainland China. Taiwanese investment in China are increasing every year. Relationships are regulated on both sides of NGOs.

Taiwan - Economically highly developed area that among the so-called "newly industrialized countries." Its GDP of 1995 allowed it to enter the twenty countries of the world leaders for reserves of foreign currency country ranks second in the world after Japan.

Industry country characterized by a high-tech  products are known all over the world. Taiwan produces the quantity of goods  and components for the global software market, which was named «Silicon Island". The developed manufacturing industry sector: electronic, chemical, tool-and shipbuilding, textile, leather and footwear, sewing. Taiwan - the world's largest manufacturer camphor. Industrialization cranes significantly affected the state of its environment  environment.

Agriculture. For agricultural suitable cultivation only 30% of the territory. Industry gives only 4% of GDP. Farmers  collect 2.3 harvests per year. Cultivated rice, corn, sugar cane, betel, coconuts, bamboo, sorghum, tea, yutyutn, tropical fruits and vegetables. Developed fishing, pig, poultry.

Transport. The length of railways about 4 km., Road over 17 km. Main ports - Kaohsiung, Jilong, Taichung, Hualyan, Suao.

Foreign economic relations. In total Foreign Trade Taiwan ranked 14th in the world. Exporting country are textiles, information technology, electronic products, sugar, camphor, metal products. Importing weapons, metals, oil and so on. Main trading partners - the U.S., China, Japan.

Glossary of Terms and Concepts

Demilitarization of the areain international law means the elimination, under international treaty, military fortifications and buildings in a particular area and include a ban on it military bases and troops. Differ completely (Antarctica, Aland Arch., celestial bodies, including the Moon) and partial demilitarization (Denuclearization). In literature, the term "demilitarization" sometimes used in a broader sense (demilitarization of the economy).

Deadweight, Full load ship  bulk cargo (payload, ship supplies, crew), taken ship. Deadweight when settling on Load Line is the main performance of the ship.

Truck brand, Mark or number horizontal lines on both sides of the ship in the middle of its length, which shows the maximum allowed to dive depending on the season and region  swimming.