§ 33. General characteristics of Asia.
Asia, the largest in area and population of the region of the world (About 43.4 million km 2 with the Asian territory of Russia). The boundary between Asia and Europe is usually done Urals (his crest and eastern foot, the river Emba, Kuma, Manych, axial watershed of the Great Caucasus Caspian, Azov, Black and Marmara seas, straits. Bosporus and Dardanelles). In Africa, Asia combined Suez isthmus, from North America separated Bering Strait. Washed by the North Arctic, Pacific and Indian oceans, their seas, and also vnutrishnomaterykovymy seas Atlantic Ocean. The region also includes the islands: Japan, Taiwan, Sri Lanka, Philippine, Big and Small Sunda - an area more than 2 million km2.
In the geographical literature of the region is usually divided into: South-Western, Central, South, Southeast and East Asia. Differ between regions of a complex religious, ethnic, linguistic, natural and historical factors. The number of small population and a large area of
The first countries in the region were Mesopotamia, India and China. From this time the political map of the region suffered constant changes. Since the XVI century. here began to take shape colonial empires of European countries, Metropolitan which were Great Britain, France, Russia. Most of the modern independent Asian countries formed after World War II, the country Central Asia gained independence in the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 In the early XXI century. colonies in the region have not been and there are 51 independent state.
In 11 countries with population over 100 million people. six (China, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Japan) are in Asia, along with these countries there are micro-giants (Singapore, Bahrain, Maldives). Developed to include five countries: Japan, Israel, Singapore, Taiwan, South Korea.
Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait, UAE, Brunei, Oman - exporting countries of oil and gas, occupy a special place in the economy region and a high standard of living. Significant role in the economy region play a so-called "Asian tigers" first wave: Korea South, Taiwan, Singapore and new industrial countries of the second wave: Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam.
Government buildings in the heart of Kuala Lumpur. Malaysia
In the region, only five federations - UAE, Pakistan, India, Myanmar, Malaysia, 14 countries are monarchies: Empire (Japan), three Sultanate (Brunei, Malaysia, Oman), the four Emirates (Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait, UAE) six kingdoms (Bhutan, Jordan, Cambodia, Saudi Arabia, Nepal, Thailand). In Asia, represented the full range of options for the state system of republics with democratic traditions (India, Israel) to the absolute theocratic monarchies (Oman, Saudi Arabia).
Natural-resource potential region and significant strong, but unevenly distributed. Hot arid sands of Arabia and jungles of Indochina, deserted snow covered Himalayan peaks and crowded fertile plains of Hindustan and Java, endless expanses of steppe Mongolia and the same endless expanses of mountainous Tibet - all Asia.
The average height of the area about 900 m, the largest - 8,848 m (g Qomolangma). The main mountain ranges: Himalaya, Karakoram, Pamir, Tien Shan, Hindu Kush, Kunlun, Great Caucasus, Altai, Sayan ranges Verkhoyansk and Chersky, Plateau: Tibet, Iranian, Armenian, Maloaziatske, class, Koryak, plateaus: Srednosybirske, Arabian, Dean, the largest plain: West Siberian, Turanian, Great Chinese, Mesopotamian, Indo-Hanhska. In Kamchatka, the islands East Asia and the Malay Archipelago many active volcanoes.
Climate from the Arctic to the north, and sharply temperate continental in eastern Siberia to the equatorial to islands of Indonesia, from monsoonal in East and South Asia to and semi-desert plains of Central, Central and Western Asia. In Siberia - perennial frost. Rainfall ranges from 100 mm in the deserts of Arabia within up to 12 000 in the valley Cherapundzhi. But the climatic conditions allow to engage rural farming practice throughout Asia. The main problem crop area is the lack of moisture. The area of
Water resources rivers and lakes are of particular importance drought across much of the region. The largest rivers are the Ob, Irtysh, Yenisey, Lena, Amur River, Yellow River, Yangtze River (the longest in Asia, 5800 km.) Sitszyan, Mekong, Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Irrawaddy, Saluyin, Shatt al-Arab. Rivers belong to the pool of all the oceans of Earth. In addition, the rivers of Asia have important for irrigation agriculture, which world leaders are India and China, they are also used as major transport artery. There are large lakes: Lake Baikal, Balkhash, Issyk-Kul, Van, Urmia, Hanka, Qinghai Lake, Poyanhu, Duntinhu, Taihu, Tonle Sap.
Elephant while bathing. Thailand
Over 60% of world population lives in Asia. Modern growth population indicate that the era of population explosion in the region left behind. China, Japan, India conducted an active policy aimed at reducing the rate of natural population growth. Top growth rate (two times larger than the world) are observed today in South-West Asia (Oman, Yemen, etc.).. Problems unemployment, poverty, nepysemnosti also associated with significant population and its growth rate that is greater than growth GDP. The most unfavorable in this respect, countries in South and Southwest Asia. Population density in the region is also high - three times higher than world rates. The biggest - in Indo-Hanhskiy lowlands (Bangladesh - a country with the world's largest medium density population), the coastal regions of Japan and China, on o.Yava. There are also and virtually uninhabited hinterland of China and Mongolia.
In general in South and Southwest Asia dominates youth, children under 16 make up over 40% of the population. And at the same time Japan Society has the most "elderly". Sexual structure population in Asia is characterized by a predominance of men: the 1000 women accounted for 1,049 men. Asia - the least urbanized part of world, only a third of whose population lives in cities, but due to the large total population in China and India is Asia's lives almost half of all citizens of the Earth.
Very complex and diverse national, linguistic and religious the population of the region. Here live the most numerous peoples of the world: Chinese hindustantsi, Bengali, Japanese, bihartsi, Punjabis, and yavantsi others who speak over 800 languages
Buddha in the temple. Thailand
Nadra Asia is rich in various mineral resources: the region accounts for almost 70% of proven oil reserves (Saudi Arabia - 25%, 9 - 10% - Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, UAE), 39% of the world gas reserves (Iran, Qatar, Kuwait, the UAE ranked from second to fifth place in the world in its reserves after Russia), one third of world reserves coal (the leaders of China are - first place in the world, India, Russia), significant reserves of thorium and uranium ore (China, India, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan). In Asia is more than 2 / 3 of world's reserves of tin and tungsten (China, Malaysia, Indonesia), third - nickel (China, Indonesia), chromium (Turkey, India, Philippines, Kazakhstan), manganese (India, China, Kazakhstan, Georgia), iron ore (China, India), bauxite (China, India, Indonesia), copper ore (China, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia), gold (China, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan). Among non-metallic mineral raw materials should note the significant deposits of mica (India) and graphite (India, Sri Lanka, South Korea), potassium salt (Israel, Jordan), phosphorus (China, Kazakhstan, Jordan, Israel, Iraq).
On the streets of Tbilisi. Georgia
For manufacturing GDP Asia is the world leader, and the pace growth compares to it can no region of the world. The leaders are Japan, China, India. For the production of GDP (at the rate national currency), they rank respectively second, sixth and eleventh in the world. At the stage of post-development among Asian countries are Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Cyprus, Israel and Bahrain. Industrial development reached India, China, new industrialized countries 'second wave', Turkey, Iran, Iraq, the country - exporters of oil and gas. The least developed countries in the region (Afghanistan, Mongolia, Burma, Myanmar, etc.) are agricultural economics.
The fate of Asia is almost a third of world industrial production. Japan, China and India stand out among the countries of the region-scale industry development and range of industries. Most Japan's economy is extensive and newly industrialized countries "first wave. " Gulf countries have a special structure of the economy dominated sectors of the energy sector. Countries of the region provide global leadership in terms of oil, coal, iron ore, chromite, tin and tungsten ores. Among the areas manufacturing allocated steelmaking, shipbuilding, mechanical engineering (production of household appliances, robotics, computers and components), production of cotton fabrics, garments, shoes.
Rapid growth of industrial production has not affected the agriculture, which occupied almost half the workforce region. The first decade of XXI century. characterized by the production of almost half of world agricultural production in Asia. Most part of this production is consumed in the region. Asian countries are leaders not only in terms of production of basic food crops, but also for livestock animals. Only China produces a quarter agricultural products around the world.
Rice plantations in Thailand
Transport network Asia original, although developed All modes of transport. The length of the largest transportation routes, but their density is much lower than global, with the exception of developed countries region. Foreign trade of the region provides marine transportation. Major ports are Singapore (first place in the world), Chiba and Nagoya (Japan), Shanghai and Hong Kong (China), Ulsan and Gwangju (South Korea).
In the port of Hong Kong
The structure of world top-ranked countries largest Navy include Cyprus, Singapore, China and Japan. Inside of leadership owned railway transport, especially - in China, Japan and India. Structure has a special way transport system Exporting Countries oil and gas. Important role in the turnover here is pipeline transport, and the passenger - car. Rapidly developing air transport (20% of global air traffic, which twice as much as 10 years ago).
Local bus. Myanmar
Share of services in GDP of developed countries of Asia varies from 60 to 80%. Japan behind the production of various types of services only the U.S.. Tokyo - the third in the world after New York and London financial center world. Large regional financial centers are Singapore, Hong Kong and Manama (Bahrain) in Cyprus, Singapore, Bahrain, UAE, Malaysia established offshore. Over 20% of international tourist travel falls on Asian countries, the most popular are the countries of Eastern and South-East Asia.
Theatrical festival in Taiwan
The fate of the region in world trade is about 1 / 3. Among 20 world leaders in 7 - to Asia, and Japan ranks third. The highest rates are characteristic for the countries - exporters of petroleum and gas, newly industrialized countries 'second wave', Singapore, China, South Korea. In the commodity structure of exports from South-Western Asia is dominated by energy, industrial goods and ore raw material - in structure of East, South and Southeast Asia.