§ 32. Romania.
Area: 238.4 km2
Population:22 215 000 (2010)
Official name: Country Romania
Political System: Parliamentary republic
Legislature: Bicameral National Assembly (Chamber of Deputies and Senate)
President: President (elected for 4 years)
Administrative structure: Unitary country (40 counties within the 9 provinces and 1 capital district)
Common religion: Christianity (Orthodox)
Member UN, EU (2008), NATO (2004).
National Holiday: National Day of Romania (December 1)
EGP and natural resource potential. Romania - state in the south of Europe, in the lower Danube basin in the east has access to the Black Sea. In Ukraine, it borders with Moldova, Hungary, Serbia and Chornornohoriyeyu, Bulgaria.
In the central and northern part of the Romanian Carpathians are located (with highest point - d. Moldovyanu, 2544 m), which converge with Transylvanian Alps. In the south is Nizhnodunayska plain, on southeast - Dobruja plateau.
Climate - Moderately continental. Winter - cold and snow on the plains average January temperatures from 0 to-50C, in the mountains to -100C, summer is very warm with average July temperature ranges from 20 to 230S. Rainfall - 300 - 700 mm on the plains to 1500 mm in mountains. The main river - the Danube tributaries of Jiu, Olt, Siret, Prut. Almost third of the territory, mainly in the mountains, covered with forests (oak, beech, birch, pine, spruce), flat areas represented by steppe and steppe vegetation, much of the country plowed here are some of the best soils in Europe.
Nadra country rich in Mineral resources: oil, natural gas, iron and manganese ore, copper, bauxite, gold, silver, lead, zinc, uranium, mercury, potassium salt, gypsum, limestone.
Population. Most of the population are Romanians (89.5%), among the most numerous ethnic minorities are Hungarians, Gypsies, Germans, Ukrainian, Turkish, and others. Official language - Romanian, belongs to the Romance language group, except it uses language national minorities. Believers - mostly Orthodox Christians, is also Greek Catholics, Protestants, Muslims, yudayisty. Demographic remains unfavorable: the birth rate in the country less than death.
The area inhabited by very uneven, the average population density of 91 people. per km2. Many people living in rural areas. The level of urbanization is 56%. Major cities are Bucharest, Constanta, Iasi, Suceava, Botosani, Temishoara, Craiova, Ploiesti.
Bucharest, The capital of Romania, located on Nizhnodunayskiy lowlands, the river Dymbovitsa, 45 km. from the Danube.
The city was founded in the XIV century. Documents from the modern city name signed host Valahyi Vlad Impaler, known as Count Dracula, from 1659 was - the capital of Wallachia, and in 1861 - Romania. After numerous wars and fire medieval buildings in the city almost did not survive. In addition, during the reign of Ceausescu to build grandiose buildings of the Palace Republic was demolished almost 10 hectares of old buildings.
Bucharest - a significant industrial, transport, scientific and cultural Center: development received engineering, metalworking, ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, chemical, textile, garments, leather and footwear, glass, porcelain, faience, wood processing, food processing, 16 km. the city has an international airport Otopeni, is Subway.
The University was founded in 1864, is the Academy of Sciences, Museum of Art, Romanian history, memorial museums, opera house, Philharmonic and others. Among the architectural monuments - the fortress of power and Impaler Prince's Palace of Domnyaska XVI century church .. which is the oldest building in town.
Iasi, a city in northeastern Romania, the Bahluy. For the first time mentioned in the late XIV - early XV century. In the second half of XVI century. to 1862 - the capital of the Moldavian principality. The city is older in country, founded in 1860, the University is a conservatory, the National Theatre, State Opera, the Philharmonic Society, the Botanical Gardens.
Significant industrial, transport, scientific and cultural center country. Here are the steel industry, heavy engineering (road machines and equipment for chemical, pulp and paper industry), chemical (synthetic fibers Plastics, antibiotics), textile, woodworking, printing, harchovosmakova industry.
Constanta, A port city on the Black Sea, one of oldest cities in the Black Sea. In the V century. BC here was established Greek colony of Thomas, which together with other Greek colony in 29 BC BC became part of the Roman Empire. City glorified as a place exile of the great poet Ovid (8-17 years BC).
Ship repair and shipbuilding developed, pulp and paper, furniture, textiles, food processing (flour milling, bakery, meat, fish-canning, wine, fruit canning and confectionery) industry. Here is a base of marine fisheries, is an international airport. Constanta known as a resort on the Black Sea.
Among the architectural monuments - the remnants of Hellenic and Roman structures (II - III AD.) Byzantine basilica (V cent.) Remnants of fortifications (V - VI cent.) Mosque (XVII - XIX cc.).
Economy. Romania - Industrial and agricultural country. GDP per capita is 8 17 $. In today's economy country is in a state of peril: outdated equipment through which to industrial enterprises kept low labor productivity, output uncompetitive products. Economic growth goes slowly. Most of the country's GDP is the value of products industry and agriculture, less than half - of the service sector.
Due to the country's rich mineral resource base here developed sufficiently developed heavy industry. In recent years, more revenues the country is tourism industry development which promote the Transylvanian Alps, mountain scenery, the presence of mineral springs and curative mud, warm Black Sea coast, medieval castles, churches and monasteries.
Industry Romania needs radical modernization. The main sectors of the economy are mining, black (Galati, Hunedoara) and color (smelting aluminum, zinc, lead, copper: Slatina), metallurgy, Oil (significant market share is the company «Rompetrol»), oil refining, engineering (transportation, agricultural, electrical, manufacture of industrial equipment: Ploiesti) electronic, chemical (production of acids, alkalis, mineral fertilizers and etc..), woodworking, pulp and paper, furniture, textile, light and food, industry.
Production Electricity focused primarily mainly on thermal power plants. Oil industry is one of the largest in the economy country's oil reserves but small and its production is constantly decreases.
Light and Food industry developed enough, they do not provide even the domestic demand market. Developed traditional art: making leather products, pottery, weaving of twigs and straw, embroidery and so on. About 30% labor force works in agriculture, 23% - in industry, 47% - in the service sector.
Agriculture. In agriculture predominant crop grain direction, the main crops: corn, wheat and rye. With crops predominate crops sugar beet, sunflower, hemp, flax, tobacco, chicory, ricin, poppy, mustard, potatoes. Developed vegetable growing, viticulture, fruit (the most common fruits: apples and plums).
Livestock is of secondary importance. Bred cattle, pigs, sheep, poultry. Developed beekeeping. Fishing distributed at the mouth of the Danube and Black Sea.
Agriculture provides about 60% of the country's needs in food.
Transportation. In Romania developed all kinds of transport. Romanian Railways carry a significant part of freight and passengers within the country. The length of railways - more than 11 thousand km. 1075 km. river transport network is the Danube, the main Ports: Galati, Breyila, Giurgiu. The importance of the Romanian ports increases with creating trans-European railway Rhine-Danube. Chief Marine - Port of Constanta.
Foreign economic relations. Romania exports vehicles, chemical products, machinery, textiles, metallurgical industry.
Imports mainly machinery, raw materials, including oil and gas, textiles and glassware. The main foreign trade partners - Germany, Italy, France. Recently, increasing trade with Ukraine.