§ 30. Hungary.
Area: 93 030 km2
Population:9 906 000 (2010)
Official name: Hungary
Political System: Parliamentary republic
Legislature: Unicameral National Assembly
President: President (elected by Parliament for a five-year term)
Administrative structure: A unitary state (19 regions)
Common religion: Christianity (Catholics, Calvinists)
Member UN, NATO, EU
National Holiday: Day of the national liberation struggle and Revolution (March 15), Revolution Day 1956 and the proclamation of the Hungarian Republic in 1989 (23 October), Saint Stephen (20 August)
EGP and natural resources potential. Hungary - continental states of Central Europe, bordering with Ukraine Slovakia, Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia and Romania and has no direct outlet to the sea. Partially compensates for this problem Danube, which crosses the country in the central part.
Most of the territory is Srednodunayska plain, in the western part of the country is hilly plain Dunantul, east of the Danube - Lowland Alfeld. In the west and north are the spurs of Hungary Alps and Carpathians, where the array is the highest point of the Matra country - g. Kekesh (1015 m). The climate is temperate continental, mild cloudy and humid winter (-20 - 20C) and hot summers (220 - 230S). Average precipitation reaches 600 - 700 mm, but even under these conditions of areas countries suffering from drought.
River network Hungary is in the Danube Basin - main waterway of the country. Major tributaries: Tisa, Drava and Peresh. Lake Balaton is the largest not only in Hungary but also in Central Europe.
The sixth part of the country covered with oak and beech forests, large areas takes Pashto (versigrass steppes) and agricultural lands with fertile soils. Country little in mineral resources. Industrial values
Population. Hungary - odnonatsionalna state, 97% population are Hungarians, who believe their native Hungarian language. Hungarian it is not like any of the languages
The average life expectancy of men 69 years old women - 78 years. Density - 108.0 persons. per km2. 65% of the population lives in cities, the largest of which Budapest (one fifth of the population), Debrecen, Which is mostly steppe, Szeged and P
Budapest, Hungary's capital and port on the Danube, a considerable transport hub of the country and an important industrial center that provides more than 35 % Of industrial production of the country: Engineering (including automotive, of equipment and tractors, construction), electrical engineering, textile, chemical, pharmaceutical, rubber, clothing, printing, light industry, food industry. Works International Airport (Ferihegy). It is in Budapest first time in continental Europe started working underground.
Budapest - the largest cultural and scientific center of the country, here working University, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, National Museum, Museum Fine Arts, Music Academy, theaters.
Historically, the city formed of three villages: Buda, Pest and Obudy that in 1873 united in Budapest after the completion of several bridges over the Danube. In place Obudy found traces of Neolithic settlements, is findings that indicate the presence here Celts in the second - and art. BC In place of Buda and Obudy in the first century. was established within the Roman Akvinkum province of Pannonia.
As part of the Danube forms several islands. One of them turned the park with hotels, restaurants, attractions, etc., on the second is the largest enterprise of the city - and Chepelskyy Metalcutting Machine-Building Plant. Banks of the Danube in the city connecting bridges 8, 2 including rail.
In the northern plains Alfeld the merger of several small villages formed the city of Debrecen. The first mention of him refer to 1235
The city received the development of mechanical engineering and metal chemical-pharmacological, harchovosmakova, clothing, furniture, leather industry industry operates airport, Institute of Nuclear Studies and Physics Sun Academy of Sciences of the country, university and other institutions of science and culture.
Economy. Hungary - a typical post-socialist industrial-agricultural country, whose economy has a narrow footprint directed specialization of the economy that occurred during the socialist past. GDP per capita is $ 16,627.
The composition of GDP agriculture gives 3.2% of value indus-slovist - 31.9%, services - 65%. Employment in sectors of the economy differs from these figures: in agriculture sector employed 20%, industry - 35%, services - 45%. In country has favorable conditions for agriculture and good tourist and recreational opportunities.
Industry. The leading branch of industry country is the engineering, including production of buses "Ikarus" production communications, instrumentation, machine tools. Well presented chemical, pharmaceutical, metallurgical (especially aluminum, based on deposits of bauxite), textile, harchovosmakovoyi industry. Power is focused on thermal power plants.
Over the past decade, significantly reduced the volume of production in Mining, metallurgy, textile, chemical, pharmaceutical, Mother alomistkyh and energy sectors.
Highly developed agriculture country creates basis for the development of a wide range of food industry: wine, mukomolno-grinding, and prodoovoche m'yasokonservnoyi.
Agriculture. The structure of agriculture Hungarian crop farms and livestock is almost equal sectors of the market value of products produced. 2 / 3 of arable land busy sowing grain, mainly wheat and corn. Grow potatoes, sugar beets, sunflowers, vegetables (peppers, onions, cucumbers, etc.) highly developed horticulture and viticulture. Tokaj wine from grapes grown on volcanic slopes of Mount Tokaj, considered among the best in the world.
With branches Livestock key is swine breeding and breeding poultry. Hungary is one of the first places in Europe the consumption of poultry meat per capita. Developed dairy cattle.
Transportation. In Hungary there are all kinds of transport, except sea. This contributed to its geographical position transit length roads is more than 30 thousand km, the main freight provides rail transport. In the capital, international airport. Danube pozv'yazuye Hungary with other countries.
Foreign economic relations. Exported machines and equipment, other manufactured goods, food products, raw materials, fuel and energy, transportation equipment, computer software, chemicals, alumina, medicines, canned vegetables, meat, produce light industry. The main consumers of Hungarian products are Germany, Italy, France, Austria, Romania, Great Britain, Slovakia, Poland.
Imported to Hungary paper, cotton, lumber, leather, products machinery from Germany, China, Russia, Austria, Italy, France, Netherlands.
Of great importance is the international tourism and foreign exchange earnings from him. Every year, Hungary has more than 30 million tourists. They are attracted resort area of
Stable position in the economy and society in recent years Hungary has made one of the most attractive for foreign investment Eastern European countries.