§ 28. Republic of Belarus. Moldova.
Area: 207.6 thousand km2
Population:9 649 000 (2010)
Official name: Republic of Belarus
Political System: Republic
Legislature: Bicameral Parliament
Administrative structure6 regions, 117 districts
Common religion: Christianity (Orthodox, Catholic)
Member UN, CIS, Council of Europe
National Holiday: Republic Day - 3 July (Day of liberation of Belarus from the Nazis)
EGP and natural-resource potential. Belarus located in eastern Europe and borders Russia, Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania and Latvia. A developed transportation system that provides benefits transit position between the Central and Eastern Europe compensates lack of access to the sea.The climate is temperate, temperate continental oceanic continental with cold winters, cool and wet summer. The average annual rainfall of 500 to 700 mm. per year over evaporation and helps swamping large areas. More than a third territory occupied by marshes, mainly distributed in alive. Agricultural land is extended by the reclamation works.
Most of the territory - is flat with numerous traces of glacial activity. In the northwest are moraine strands that are part of the Baltic moraine ridges, and between them - swampy lowlands. Major River: River (with tributaries Berezin, Prip'yat), Western Dvina, Neman (with inflow Vilia), Western Bug, and more than 10 thousand lakes. Mixed forests cover about one third of the territory, a significant of them is the Natural Reserve Fund of the Republic. Pine, spruce and other conifers are nearly a third of the area covered by forest, on south common oak, hornbeam, maple, ash.
Among the small number of mineral oil and natural gas, granite, dolomityzovanyy limestone, marl, chalk, sand, gravel, clay.
Almost a quarter of the territory of Belarus is located in the zone of radioactive contamination as a result of the Chernobyl accident in 1986
The population is evenly placed. 78% of the population are Belarusians, 13% - Russians, 4% - Poles, 3% - Ukrainian. In the city lives 71 % Of the population, accounted for a quarter of its capital. Official languages
Minsk, the capital of the republic, a city in the central part of the country on Svisloch River (Dnieper basin). The first written notice of Minsk found in the "lead vremennыh years" (1067) in connection with internecine wars of the Russian princes.
This - the largest industrial center with well-developed machine building and working (car, motor, bearing plants, plant wheeled tractors, "Motovelo" Production Association "Belavtomaz" Minsk Tractor Plant), production of machine tools and automatic lines watches, TVs, radios, refrigerator (Plant refrigerators "Atlas", Plant television "Horizon", Electrical Engineering plant, Research and Production Association "Agat"), light ("Milavitsa" "Ale"), harchovosmakovoyu, chemical-pharmaceutical and chemical, printing industry, manufacturing of building materials ("Keramin").
Gomel city in the southeast of the country, the port on the river Sozh. One of ancient cities of Belarus, emerged in the late 1st millennium BC For the first time Ipatevskoy mentioned in the annals as the domain of Chernigov prince. A large industrial center where businesses operate agricultural engineering, machinery and apparatus, forestry, woodworking, light and food industries. The largest them, "Gomselmash" (grain and feed agriculture technology), "Homelsklo" (glassware), "Homeldrev" (case and soft furniture), an enterprise of processing diamonds "Crystal", "Bilorusnafta" (Exploration and production of oil).
Vitebsk, a city in north-eastern part of Belarus, on the pier Western Dvina. Got its name from the river Vitba on the bank which emerged. For the first time mentioned in chronicles staroruskyh 1021 Main industries: machine building and metal processing (plants Machine, machine tools, motororemontnyy) instrument (Plant watch parts, television), light industry (Hosiery, knitwear, textile, shoe factories); transformation (Furniture factory, woodworking factory), food industry (Meat, dairy plant and bakery, Fish Factory).
Economy. Belarus - industrial-agrarian country. GDP per capita is about $ 6100. Government statistics indicate that GDP growth in recent years reached more than 8%. The composition of GDP Agriculture provides 8.4%, industry - 41.5%, services - 50.1%.
Industry. Belarus retains a powerful set of manufacturing industries that are targeted to use qualified personnel: auto and tractor (Minsk, Zhodino, Mogilev), instrumentation, electronics, household production appliances (refrigerators "Atlas") (Minsk, Vitebsk, Gomel, Mozyr, Brest, Lida), Machine Tool (Minsk, Vitebsk, Gomel, Pinsk, Orsha, Molodechno). Developed an easy, including knitting, linen, leather and footwear, food (meat, milk, volume of butter, canning and etc..) forest and wood industry. Almost half of the issue products these industries accounted for enterprise capital.
The territory of Belarus is crossed powerful oil and gas pipelines from Russia to Europe. On the basis of their work and petrochemical plants Mozyr Novopolotsk. In addition. mining and chemical industry uses partly own salt and raw materials for production of mineral fertilizers (Potassium - Salihorsk, phosphate - Atlanta, Nitrogen - Grodno).
Enterprises of light promyslovoisti working on their own and on carried raw materials. In Minsk, Vitebsk, Grodno, Mogilev, Bobruisk are textiles, garments, knitwear, footwear and other manufacturing light industry.
Agriculture. In multidisciplinary rural agriculture uses more than 30% of the country and meadows pastures occupy about 14%. Grow Potatoes (first among CIS with production per capita), cereals (rye, barley, wheat, oats, buckwheat). Belarus took 2nd place in the CIS after Kazakhstan wheat production per capita. Larger areas of under flax, sugar beet, etc.. Developed cattle cattle, pigs, poultry. 80% of the cost agricultural products gives livestock.
Transportation. There are all kinds of transport, except sea. Main types: road, rail and pipeline. Airport works in Minsk. Pipeline transport gas, oil and refined products.
Railroads are more than 5.5 thousand km. Highways - 94.7 km.
Foreign economic relations. Belarus exports Machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, tissue, food, timber, building materials, linen jersey, fertilizers. The main export partners are Russia, Netherlands, UK, Ukraine, Poland, Latvia. Imported mineral products, machinery and equipment, chemicals, food, petroleum, metals from Russia, Germany and Ukraine.
Glossary of Terms and Concepts
Reclamation(Latin melioratio - better) system of organizational and economic and technical measures to improve conditions of land to the most efficient use. Types irrigation: irrigation, drainage, chemical reclamation, agroforestry.
Area: 33.7 km2
Population:4 321 000 (2010)
Official name: Republic of Moldova
Political System: Parliamentary republic
Legislature: Unicameral Parliament
Administrative structure: Unitary republic
Common religion: Christianity (Orthodox)
National Holiday: Independence Day (August 27)
EGP and natural resources potential. Moldova borders Romania and Ukraine and has access to the sea. The main landscape of the country - hilly plains, river valleys and rozitnuta beams, the most elevated in the central part. The climate is temperate continental with moderate winters, warm summers, favorable for the development of agriculture.
Main River: Dniester and Prut. Many floodplain lakes. Most of the steppe with fertile chernozem plowed soils. Deciduous forests, which grow oak, ash, hornbeam, beech and lime, take up about 9% of the country. Minerals are limited, are lignite, phosphorites, gypsum, limestone.
Population. Life expectancy in Moldova is for men - 60 years for women - 69 years.
Main nationality - Moldovans, who make up almost 78% of the population, others - Ukrainian, Russian, Gagauz, Jews, Bulgarians. Most believers, more than 98% - Orthodox Christians. Moldova does not too urbanized countries, the urban population here is only 52% and The average population density - one of the largest in Europe: 131.2 persons. on km2. Most Ukrainian and Russians live in cities. This is development of industry in Soviet times, when the development engineering, light and food industry professionals involved with other Soviet republics.
The state language in the country - Moldovan, and in Transdniester Moldovan state considered, Russian and Ukrainian language. Largest cities: Chisinau, Bender, Tiraspol, Toronto.
Kishinev, known since 1466 the city on the river Bic. Large industrial center of the country with companies engineering, wine, fruit and vegetables, canning, tobacco, light, chemical and wood industry, the largest scientific and cultural center (University universities, theaters, museums).
Bender, a marina on the river Dniester. It was founded on the verge XIIV-XV Art. the period of Turkish domination in the territory of modern Moldova.
A large railway junction with advanced light, food, woodworking industry. Mechanical Engineering is represented by plants "Electrical equipment", cable, ship repair, shipbuilding and other. Bender - the birthplace of academician Lev Semenovich Berg, President Geographical Society of USSR, a scientist of world renown.
Tiraspol, the city marina on the left bank of the river Dniester. Established the orders ov Suvorov in 1792 after the Russo-Turkish War.
The city is canning, produce, wine and cognac plants enterprise engineering, light industry (textiles, clothing, furniture) chemical industry, woodworking industry.
Since 1990, Tiraspol is the administrative center of unrecognized Pridnestrovskaia Moldavian Republic. The symbol of the city - set in 1979 dev'yatymetrovyy monument to the founder of Suvorov.
Economy. Moldova - a young post-socialist State which holds the level of one of the last places in Europe. GDP per capita is among the lowest in the CIS and in Europe and is $ 2380, its membership gives agriculture 17.3%, industry - 21.5%, services - 61.2%. The economy depends on agriculture. Moldova must import almost 100% energy.
Industry. During the years of socialism Industry developed on the resources and raw materials that came from other republics Soviet Union. After independence in the country "survived" in Basically only the food industry, represented by the companies producing wine, canned food, sugar, vegetable oil and other foods.
In the best position are companies of Transdniestria, where existed among the best in the USSR of Light industry, especially knitting.
Needs of agricultural production and food industry provides engineering republic, which in turn provides powerful raw processing complex, represented wine, baking, flour, tobacco, perfume and cosmetic industry.
Agriculture. Fertile soils and soft climate contributed to the development of agriculture. Viticulture - the most important sectors of national economy. Anti-alcohol company Soviet government caused significant damage to vineyards, has led to fall wine industry. Create large areas of black earth good conditions for agriculture. The main crops - winter wheat and corn. Wheat is the domestic market, and corn exported. Developed vegetable gardening, growing technical crops: sugar beets, potatoes, sunflowers, feed and Aromatic crops, berries.
Stockbreeding a meat-and dairy character, raised mostly cattle, sheep and goats. Scribbles and beaver lamb breeds of sheep bred in the south.
Transportation. With its major trading partners Moldova bound road and railways. For internal traffic using the river Dniester and Prut. In the capital has an international airport.
Foreign economic relations. The main export products of the country: food, textiles, wine, machinery and textile products. The main trade partners are Russia, Romania, Italy, Ukraine, Germany, Poland, Belarus. The economy of the country depends on imported fuels, mineral products, machinery and equipment, ferrous metals. They imported from Russia, Ukraine, Romania, Germany, Italy, Poland.